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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                to                
Commission file number 001-04321
__________________________
ORIGIN MATERIALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________
Delaware
87-1388928
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
930 Riverside Parkway, Suite 10
West Sacramento, CA
95605
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(916) 231-9329
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per shareORGN
The NASDAQ Capital Market
WarrantsORGNW
The NASDAQ Capital Market
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Shares
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 30, 2021, based on the closing price of $8.20 for shares of the Registrant’s common stock as reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market, was approximately $899.5 million. Shares of common stock beneficially owned by each executive officer, director, and holder of more than 10% of our common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
APPLICABLE ONLY TO REGISTRANTS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY
PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PRECEDING FIVE YEARS:
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes No
APPLICABLE ONLY TO CORPORATE ISSUERS:
The registrant had outstanding 141,301,569 shares of common stock as of February 25, 2022.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be issued in conjunction with the registrant’s 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is expected to be filed not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 ("Proxy Statement"), are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report. Except as expressly incorporated by reference, the registrant’s Proxy Statement shall not be deemed to be a part of this Annual Report.



INTRODUCTORY NOTE

Origin Materials, Inc., formerly known as Artius Acquisition Corp. ("Artius"), was originally registered under the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands on January 24, 2020, as a special purpose acquisition company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization, or other similar business combination with one or more target businesses. On June 25, 2021, we consummated the previously announced merger pursuant to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated as of February 16, 2021 (as amended by the letter agreement dated March 5, 2021, as it may be further amended from time to time) (the "Merger Agreement"), by and among Artius, Zero Carbon Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Artius (the "Merger Sub"), and Micromidas, Inc., a Delaware corporation doing business as Origin Materials ("Legacy Origin"). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, we effected a business combination with Legacy Origin through the merger of Merger Sub with and into Legacy Origin, with Legacy Origin surviving as the surviving company and as our wholly-owned subsidiary. We refer to this as the “Merger” and, collectively with the other transactions described in the Merger Agreement, the “Business Combination”. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, we changed our name to Origin Materials, Inc.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the “Company,” “Origin,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Origin Materials, Inc. (f/k/a Artius Acquisition Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries (including Legacy Origin). References to “Artius” refer to the predecessor company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
The Company makes forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”) and in documents incorporated herein by reference. All statements, other than statements of present or historical fact included in or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, regarding the Company’s future financial performance, as well as the Company’s strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues, and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. When used in this Annual Report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” the negative of such terms and other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, assumptions, hopes, beliefs, intentions and strategies regarding future events and are based on currently available information as to the outcome and timing of future events. The Company cautions you that these forward-looking statements are subject to all of the risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond the control of the Company, incident to its business.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this Annual Report, and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements in this Annual Report and in any document incorporated herein by reference should not be relied upon as representing the Company’s views as of any subsequent date, and the Company does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, the Company’s actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:
any further changes to the Company’s financial statements or this Annual Report that may be required due to SEC comments or further guidance regarding the accounting treatment of the Assumed Common Stock Warrants (as defined in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report);
the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting;
the Company’s future financial and business performance, including financial projections and business metrics;
changes in the Company’s strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects and plans;
the Company’s ability to scale in a cost-effective manner;
the Company’s ability to raise capital;
the Company’s ability to secure additional project financing and government incentives;
the Company’s ability to complete construction of its plants in the expected timeframe and in a cost-effective manner;
the Company’s ability to procure necessary capital equipment and to produce its products in large commercial quantities;
the impact of government laws and regulations and liabilities thereunder, including any decline in the value of carbon credits;
any increases or fluctuations in raw material costs;
the ability to maintain the listing of the Company’s common stock on the Nasdaq; and
the impact of worldwide economic, political, industry, and market conditions, including the continued effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Other risks and uncertainties set forth in this Annual Report, including risk factors discussed in Item 1A under the heading, “Risk Factors”.
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RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report and our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The below summary is qualified in its entirety by that more complete discussion of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the section titled “Risk Factors” as part of your evaluation of an investment in our securities:
We are an early stage company with a history of losses and our future profitability is uncertain, and our financial projections may differ materially from actual results.
Our business plan assumes we can secure substantial additional project financing and government incentives, which may be unavailable on favorable terms, if at all.
We previously identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that we have concluded has been remediated, though we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or result in failure to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
Construction of our plants may not be completed in the expected timeframe or in a cost-effective manner. Any delays in the construction of our plants could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We plan to rely on our Origin 1 and Origin 2 plants to meet customer demand until 2027.
We have not produced our products in large commercial quantities and may not manage growth effectively.
Our offtake agreements with customers include liquidated damages, advance repayment and/or termination provisions that may be triggered if we fail to timely complete plant construction or commence our commercial operations.
Our industry is highly competitive, and we may lose market share to producers of products that can be substituted for our products, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Increases or fluctuations in the costs of our raw materials may affect our cost structure.
Compliance with extensive environmental, health and safety laws could require material expenditures, changes in our operations or site remediation.
Our business relies on proprietary information and other intellectual property, and our failure to protect our intellectual property rights could harm our competitive advantages with respect to the use, manufacturing, sale or other commercialization of our processes, technologies and products, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may face patent infringement and other intellectual property claims that could be costly to defend, result in injunctions and significant damage awards or other costs (including indemnification of third parties or costly licensing arrangements, if licenses are available at all) and limit our ability to use certain key technologies in the future or require development of non-infringing products or technologies, which may cause us to incur significant unexpected costs, prevent us from commercializing our products and otherwise harm our business.
We rely on trade secrets to protect our technology, and our failure to maintain trade secret protection could limit our ability to compete.
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
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Part I
Item 1. Business
Overview
Origin Materials, Inc. ("Origin") is a carbon negative materials company with a mission to help enable the world’s transition to sustainable materials by replacing petroleum-based materials with decarbonized materials in a wide range of end products, such as food and beverage packaging, clothing, textiles, plastics, car parts, carpeting, tires, adhesives, soil amendments and more. We believe that our platform technology can help make the world’s transition to “net zero” possible and support the fulfillment of greenhouse gas reduction pledges made by countries as part of the United Nations Paris Agreement as well as corporations that are committed to reducing emissions in their supply chains.
Our technology can convert sustainable feedstocks such as sustainably harvested wood residues, agricultural waste, wood waste and even corrugated cardboard into materials and products that are currently made from fossil feedstocks such as petroleum and natural gas. These sustainable feedstocks are not used in food production, which differentiates our technology from other sustainable materials companies that use feedstocks such as vegetable oils or high fructose corn syrup and other sugars.
We believe that products made using Origin's platform technology can compete directly with petroleum-derived products on both performance and price. Due to abundant and renewable wood supplies that have historically stable pricing, our cost of production is expected to be more stable than potential competing platforms that use other types of feedstocks. We believe that end products made using our platform technology will have a significant unit cost advantage over products made from other low carbon feedstocks.
Our platform technology converts biomass-plant-based carbon into “building block” chemicals that can be converted into both “drop-in” materials and new materials with differentiated functional performance. The “drop-in” products are chemically fungible with those produced from petroleum-based raw materials, and therefore these “drop-in” products can be fed into existing supply chains without modification to the equipment or production processes of our customers.
Origin's capability to produce carbon negative materials at is protected by an intellectual property portfolio comprised of 19 patent families as well as trade secrets covering non-discoverable aspects of Origin's critical manufacturing processes.
We have developed strong partnerships with large, brand-name corporations determined to transition to sustainable materials to help meet their emissions reduction goals. For example, in 2017, we founded the “NaturALL Bottle Alliance” with Danone and Nestlé Waters, with PepsiCo joining in 2018, to accelerate the development of innovative packaging solutions made with 100% sustainable and renewable resources. Each member of the NaturALL Bottle Alliance has agreed to assist in establishing a supply chain for the production of the sustainable materials being developed by the NaturALL Bottle Alliance. Each member has also agreed to provide technical equipment, resources, know-how and scientific skills necessary for the performance of the NaturALL Bottle Alliance’s research and development program, and to be responsible for its own expenses. The members’ offtake agreements with us provide additional financial support for the research and development program and the commercialization of sustainable materials under development by the NaturALL Bottle Alliance. In addition to being customers, Danone, Nestlé and PepsiCo are also investors in Origin.
Our vision for the future is the replacement of fossil-based feedstocks and materials with non-food, plant-based feedstocks and materials, while capturing carbon in the process. Our decarbonizing platform technology potentially addresses an estimated $1.0 trillion dollar market opportunity, and we believe it can help revolutionize the production of a wide range of end products.
Our Platform Technology
We have developed a proprietary platform technology to convert biomass, or plant-based carbon, into the versatile “building block” chemicals chloromethylfurfural (“CMF”) and hydrothermal carbon (“HTC”), which we collectively refer to as Furanic Intermediates, as well as other minor products. At commercial scale, our platform technology is expected to produce CMF and HTC with a negative carbon footprint. We believe these chemicals can replace petroleum-based inputs, lowering the carbon footprint of a wide range of materials without increasing cost or sacrificing performance.
CMF. CMF is a chemically flexible intermediate that can be converted into a variety of products, including paraxylene (“PX”), that can “drop in” to current supply chains to produce purified terephthalic acid (“PTA”), and
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subsequently polyethylene terephthalate (“PET”), or polyethylene furanoate (“PEF”). CMF and its derivatives can be used to produce numerous commodity and specialty chemicals. We have developed products made from CMF that can be used in applications such as food and beverage packaging and apparel and carpet fibers, and our product development pipeline includes applications such as adhesives, coatings and plasticizers.
HTC. HTC is a diverse, high-potential carbon-negative material. Current applications of our HTC include a drop-in, energy-dense solid fuel. HTC can also be calcined to produce a carbon-negative activated carbon for food and water treatment and filtration. Our HTC product development pipeline includes carbon black replacement for tires, foams and dyes, paint and coating applications, and agriculture and soil products. Notably, our carbon black has no detectable carcinogenic compounds, known as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, found in carbon black produced from fossil feedstocks.
Our manufacturing process to produce CMF and HTC consists of front end feedstock handling, and subsequent liquid phase reaction with our catalyst mixture, followed by downstream separation processes to separate and purify CMF, HTC and other co-products, as described in the following diagram.

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Market Opportunity
Global Decarbonization Commitments
We believe that increasing consumer awareness and growing governmental initiatives are driving a shift in the global community towards decarbonized materials. The UN Paris Agreement of 2015, joined by 190 countries to date, includes commitments to limit the global average temperature increase by 2100 to well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. To achieve this target, the UN estimated in 2019 that annual carbon dioxide (“CO2”) emissions must be 15 gigatons lower than current nationally determined contributions imply.
According to a 2019 Ellen MacArthur Foundation study, approximately 45% of global CO2 emissions are associated with manufacturing products, including the production of materials and chemicals from which those products are made. According to a 2019 Barclays estimate, the chemicals market consumes 10.6 million barrels of oil per day, releasing massive quantities of new carbon into the atmosphere in the process. Our vision for the future is to replace fossil-based feedstocks and materials with sustainably harvested wood and other non-food, sustainable feedstocks. As a tree grows, it consumes existing CO2 from the atmosphere, and when it dies and decays, that CO2 is released back into the atmosphere. However, through our proprietary manufacturing process, we convert the wood into manufacturing and feedstock materials, thereby capturing that CO2.
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Many companies have already pledged to achieve net zero carbon targets, with some aiming to achieve that target within the next decade. Despite the progress in the shift to renewable energy generation and electric vehicles, we believe that reducing emissions from energy use alone is insufficient to achieve the goals and commitments established by companies and governments. Consequently, in the near-term, we believe that these companies will need to integrate decarbonized materials into their supply chains.
The graphic below highlights some of the notable companies that have made public commitments to decarbonization and their respective decarbonization targets:

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Source: Company websites and press search.
Our Addressable Market
According to the International Energy Agency, the chemical sector is the largest industrial consumer of both oil and gas. Currently, organic chemicals are predominantly derived from fossil sources such as petroleum. These chemicals are used to produce a wide array of materials from paints to plastics, space suits to solar panels, and from medicines to electronics. According to a 2019 Barclays estimate, more than 10 million barrels of oil are consumed daily to create these materials, releasing massive quantities of new carbon into the atmosphere in the process. According to a 2018 report by The Association of Plastic Recyclers, for example, every kilogram of virgin fossil-PET has a life cycle global warming potential of 2.78 kilograms of carbon emissions. Our platform technology will enable companies to lower their overall CO2 emissions and meet their emissions reduction commitments by substituting decarbonizing Furanic Intermediates and their derivatives for all or a portion of the fossil-based content of materials like PET in their supply chains.

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Source: Our World in Data, 2020
Our platform technology can produce carbon-negative and low carbon replacements for chemicals that have many potential applications. Our platform technology is expected to address some of these applications as soon as its initial production capacity is online, and to address other potential applications over time. Origin's near-term and long-term addressable markets together exceed $1 trillion.
$390+ billion near-term market focus. We believe our technology can serve near-term markets representing an aggregate market opportunity that we believe is over $390 billion when Origin 2 and Origin 3 open. These markets include polyesters for textiles, PET resin for packaging, solid fuels, activated carbon and carbon black for tires and polymer fillers. We expect the Origin 2 plant to be operational in mid-2025 and the Origin 3 plant to be operational in 2027.
$750+ billion long-term market focus. Our platform technology produces versatile chemical “building blocks” that we anticipate, in the long term, can be converted into products to replace a broad range of chemicals and materials representing an addressable market that we believe is more than $750 billion. These markets include paints, coatings, soil additives, advanced polyesters, epoxies, plasticizers, polyurethanes, elastomers, emulsions and solvents.
Competitive Landscape
We expect our products to compete with traditional, petroleum-based materials currently used in Origin's target markets, as well as compete with alternatives to these materials that both established and new companies seek to produce.
In our near-term markets, we expect to compete with established producers of PET fibers and resins, activated carbon and carbon black. Producers of these materials include global oil and petrochemical companies and large international diversified chemical companies. Several of these producers are seeking to develop materials from renewable sources that could compete with our products. Moreover, a number of established companies and new entrants have announced intentions to develop renewable alternatives for existing chemical products used in our near-term focus markets.
In addition to competition from producers of petroleum-based materials and renewable alternatives, we expect to face competition from recycled materials such as recycled PET (“rPET”) in certain applications in our near-term focus markets. We do not believe that recycled materials will achieve the required scale and penetration to impact the market demand for our products before 2030 because recycling streams are significantly supply-constrained. We believe that improving the supply constraint for recycling will require substantial investments in infrastructure and fundamental changes to the existing entrenched governmental and institutional recycling systems and customer behavior and habits. Additionally, unless there are major changes to current technology and infrastructure, we believe that it will be difficult to implement 100% rPET material sourcing for many applications.
In our long-term focus markets, we expect to face competition from, among others, incumbents that include large chemical companies that continue to rely on petroleum-based feedstocks in their production processes.
Given our leading position in decarbonized materials, we also expect to compete with alternative technologies targeting different sources of emissions. These competitors include electric vehicles, renewable power generation, and food technology. While we do not anticipate competing directly for market share with producers of these technologies, we expect to compete for wallet share from customers looking to reduce overall carbon emissions throughout their supply chain and operations. In the long-term, once adoption of various technologies has increased and customers no longer have to prioritize different methods of reducing overall carbon emission, we expect only to compete against other materials producers.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe that our platform technology can replace petroleum as the foundational feedstock for the materials economy. Our competitive strengths include:
Flexible platform enables drop-in solutions serving a large addressable market. We believe that our platform technology is well-positioned to address a substantial global market that is just beginning to transition from petroleum-based materials to sustainable materials. Many of our products are drop-in replacements for traditional petrochemicals, enabling our customers to use our products in their existing manufacturing processes to produce chemically and physically identical end products with little to no change in customer behavior.
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Abundant, low-cost and historically price-stable feedstock. Our platform technology can use timber and forest residues such as pine pulpwood, which is currently abundant and renewable, as its base-case feedstock. The feedstock for the pulp industry in North America is plentiful and the cost has historically been relatively low and stable, varying – according to the NC State University Extension Quarterly Price Report – from between $9.29 and $10.11 per ton between Q1 2015 and Q4 2020. The market for these feedstocks tends to be local due to relatively high transport costs, and therefore is insulated from typical commodity price volatility. Furthermore, our pulpwood feedstock does not compete for use as a food source, insulating our products from demand price pressures faced by other agricultural-based renewable feedstocks such as corn and sugarcane.
Unit Economics. Our proprietary platform technology converts low-cost renewable feedstock into flexible chemical intermediates in a single catalytic reaction.
Carbon Footprint. We believe our products can help enable prospective customers to achieve their net zero carbon emissions commitments by transitioning away from fossil-based materials towards materials made with our platform technology, which uses sustainable, non-food, plant-based feedstock. We estimate that a single commercial-scale Origin plant producing CMF and HTC can eliminate or avoid more than 1.3 million tons of emitted carbon dioxide annually.
High Barriers to Entry. Over more than a decade, we have generated a robust patent portfolio as well as critical trade secrets. We believe our competitors now significantly lag behind us and will be unable to replicate the efficiency, yield and quality of our process, as we expect to continue to improve our existing technology and processes.
Business Strategy
Our goal is to build a commercially successful business that can scale and meet current and future expected demand for carbon negative materials. We plan to construct plants that can produce materials at a commercial scale and expect to continue to develop new products and applications, together with our platform partners, to maintain and increase its competitive advantage.
Key elements of our strategy include:
Complete construction of Origin 1 and launch construction of Origin 2:
We are undertaking two significant initial capital projects: “Origin 1” and “Origin 2”. Our strategic intent for Origin 1 is to serve and develop longer term focus markets that require our customers to reformulate existing products and applications. At scale, Origin 2 is intended to focus on supplying products that serve our near-term markets of interest.
Origin 1, our initial plant, is under construction in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. As of December 31, 2021, we completed installation of most foundations for building and process areas at the construction site. As of December 31, 2021, we had also completed installation of the key production modules containing equipment used for the conversion of biomass feedstock into high value chemicals. We expect that interconnecting piping will be installed, all electrical work will be complete, and utilities and raw material handling equipment will be installed during 2022. We expect that construction of Origin 1 will be mechanically complete before the end of 2022, with commissioning and production at the plant beginning in 2023.
As of December 31, 2021, Origin 2 is in the project development stage. During the first quarter of 2022, we announced the completion of certain milestones, such as owner's engineer selection and, subject to finalization of economic incentives, site selection. We expect the front-end engineering design package completed and construction and fabrication started by the middle of 2023. We expect that the construction of Origin 2 will be complete, and the plant operational in 2025.
Sell-out contracted capacity in future plants years ahead of mechanical completion:
As of February 24, 2022, we had announced $5.6 billion in customer demand from customers in a diverse mix of industries, which demand is expected to be fulfilled by production from Origin 1, Origin 2, Origin 3 and Origin 4. These customers include Global Fortune 500 companies with long-term commitments to decarbonizing their supply chain and operations. We expect continued expanding demand from potential new customers and to continue contracting for new high margin products, including PEF. Because we believe that demand for our products will outpace supply for the foreseeable future, we expect that we will
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need to identify and prioritize sales to customers for applications that command the highest margins. Please see the section titled “Offtake Agreements” for additional information regarding our offtake agreements.
Expand and develop new partnerships across the value chain:
Our strategy includes, among other things, working with upstream partners to identify suitable aging/defunct pulp mills, convert key equipment components, and integrate those components into a refurbished and repurposed chemical plant. We expect this to enable us to partner with the existing forest products supply chains and government entities concerned with forest management and potential local labor and economic benefits associated with repurposing the pulp mills. We plan to engage procurement and construction companies and enter into joint ventures for production, which would provide us with best-in-class capabilities to efficiently construct our plants. In addition, we expect to collaborate with partners who have the market knowledge and expertise to design compelling products and penetrate new markets. We believe that helping these partners build profitable new businesses and product lines using our cost-advantaged chemical intermediate platform enhances the value of our platform and promotes long-term committed customer relationships for an expanding and diversifying set of markets. We also intend to continue creating industry collaborations like the NaturALL Bottle Alliance and like our partner and customer relationships with Kolon Industries, Drive+, Alliance to End Plastic Waste, Ford Motor Company, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, PrimaLoft, Solvay, and others, to commercialize decarbonizing solutions with the help of end users and brands. We intend to continue using demand from industry-leading brands to motivate and align the intermediate supply chain to meet carbon reduction commitments.
Continue development of next-gen materials and applications:
Our strategy is to develop low and negative carbon materials for use in a variety of products, including textiles and fabrics, next generation packaging, paints, coatings, and epoxies, fillers for tires and other rubber products, fuels, and agricultural products.
Our CMF near-term (2022-2025+) product focus is on low or negative carbon PET. In the medium term (2025-2027+), we will focus on improving PET polyester with the incorporation of furanic content to make “PETF” blended products, and in the longer term (2027+), we expect to focus on producing next generation high-performance polyesters with strong gas barrier and high heat resistance that can be fully recyclable with current technologies.
Our HTC near-term (2022-2025+) product focus is on “drop-in” energy-dense solid fuels. In the medium term (2025-2027+), we will focus on carbon negative carcinogen-free carbon black replacement for tires and other rubber and polymer filled materials. In the longer term (2027+), we expect to focus on next generation agricultural products such as slow-release fertilizers as well as microbial and biologics delivery.
Develop new revenue streams through technology licensing:
We have developed technologies to convert CMF and HTC into a variety of valuable end products, and expect to continue to develop these technologies. We expect, over time, to license this technology to relevant manufacturers of those end products while we supply the CMF and HTC to the licensees.
Our Products
The majority of our product output is comprised of versatile Furanic Intermediates. Depending on the specific feedstock, we may also produce several minority co-products, including levulinic acid, furfural, and various extractives.
CMF—chloromethylfurfural:
CMF is an organic compound derived directly from cellulosic biomass through our patented process, consisting of furan substituted at the 2 and 5 positions with a formyl group and chloromethyl group. CMF is easily derivatized into multiple products including those for polyesters, nylons, epoxies, surfactants, and several others. At full commercial scale, our process is expected to be able to produce CMF with a carbon impact of –1.21 kg CO2 equivalent/kg CMF, according to a life cycle analysis by Deloitte SAS.
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HTC—hydrothermal carbon:
HTC is a carbonaceous composite consisting of furanic resin and lignin fragments. It is derived from ligno-cellulose through our patented process, and is a structured composite resin comprising furanic chemical groups that can be further functionalized or de-functionalized while retaining nano-scale morphology of the HTC. Via functionalization or de-functionalization, HTC may be further derivatized into products such as carbon black, activated carbon, as well as a variety of agricultural products. At full commercial scale, our process is expected to be able to produce HTC with a carbon impact of –1.67 kg CO2 equivalent/kg HTC, according to a life cycle analysis by Deloitte SAS.
Customers
We believe that our platform technology ideally positions Origin to address industry demand for carbon-negative and low-carbon materials. As of February 24, 2022, we had announced approximately $5.6 billion in contracted offtake agreements (including customer options, which may or may not be exercised) and capacity reservations. These agreements have terms ranging from 5-10 years and encompass production from one or more of Origin 1, Origin 2, Origin 3 and Origin 4. Our customers include Global Fortune 500 companies including Ford Motor Company and fellow NaturALL Bottle Alliance members Danone, Nestlé Waters, and PepsiCo, as well as Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, Packaging Equity Holdings, Kolon Industries, PrimaLoft, Solvay, Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Minafin Group, and others.
Raw Materials Supply
Our platform technology can produce building block chemicals from a variety of abundant, low-cost bio-feedstocks including wood residues and wood processing waste. Our process was designed to be able to take advantage of idled and aging pulp mills and may be co-located with such mills to secure access to existing site-specific feedstock supplies and skilled labor while lowering required capital investment. We believe we will be able to contract for the necessary quantity and quality of these or suitable alternative feedstocks needed to manufacture products. We expect our demand for wood residues and wood processing waste in 2030 represents less than 1% of the world’s total supply of these feedstocks and less than 0.5% of the global supply of suitable alternative feedstocks that can be used in our process, such as agricultural wastes, mixed paper waste, and construction wastes.
Offtake Agreements
Nestlé Waters Offtake Agreement
In November 2016, we entered into an offtake agreement with Nestlé Waters. The agreement had a 5-year term to purchase a specified amount of product per year from the Origin 1 facility. The agreement required us to meet certain construction and product delivery milestones by specified dates and requires us to pay liquidated damages if the milestones were not achieved. For Origin 1, these milestones have been deferred to March 31, 2022 in order to facilitate the negotiation of an amendment to the agreement, including the milestone achievement dates. As of the date hereof, the negotiation is ongoing.
In addition to the above provisions, Nestlé may terminate the offtake agreement if: (i) we fail to meet agreed upon quality or quantity requirements; (ii) a force majeure continues for an extended period; (iii) any of certain designated parties directly acquires an equity interest in us; (iv) we fail to comply with mutually agreed sustainability principles; (v) either party takes steps to enter into liquidation or is subject to bankruptcy proceedings or enters into a deed of arrangement for the benefit of its creditors; or (vi) a bankruptcy event occurs with respect to a third party manufacturer that is critical to our supply chain, and we are unable to retain a substitute. If Nestlé terminates the offtake agreements, certain outstanding advance payments made to us by Nestlé and evidenced by a secured promissory note, as described below, become immediately due. In addition, upon any material breach of the offtake agreement by us, we have a specified amount of time, subject to modification by agreement with Nestlé, to cure the breach before Nestlé may terminate the agreement.
In November 2016, we received a $5.0 million prepayment from Nestlé Waters for product from Origin 1 pursuant to the offtake agreement. The prepayment will be credited against the purchase of products from Origin 1 over the term of the offtake agreement. Specifically, the prepayment will be repaid by applying a credit to product purchases each month over the operation of Origin 1 until a total of $7.5 million of credits have been applied. The prepayment is evidenced by a secured note that will be repaid in cash in the event the prepayment cannot be credited against the purchase of product because, for example, Origin 1 is never constructed. If repaid in cash, the note bears an annual interest rate of the three-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus 0.25% (0.38% at December 31, 2021) and matures five years from the commercial operation date of Origin 1. Our outstanding obligation, together with accrued interest, under Nestlé Waters’ promissory note totaled an aggregate of $5.2 million as of December 31, 2021.
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Danone Offtake Agreement
In November 2016, we entered into an offtake agreement with Danone. The agreement has a 5-year term to purchase a specified amount of product per year from the Origin 1 facility. The agreement also includes an option exercisable by Danone to enter into an additional offtake agreement to purchase product from Origin 2 for a term of up to 10 years. This option has not yet been exercised. The agreement requires us to meet certain construction and product delivery milestones by specified dates and requires us to pay liquidated damages if the milestones are not achieved. For Origin 1, these milestones have been deferred to June 30, 2022 in order to facilitate the negotiation of an amendment to the agreement, including the milestone achievement dates. As of the date hereof, the negotiation is ongoing.
In addition to the above provisions, Danone may terminate the offtake agreement if: (i) we fail to meet the agreed upon quality or quantity requirements; (ii) a force majeure event continues for an extended period; (iii) any of certain designated parties directly acquires an equity interest in us; (iv) we fail to comply with mutually agreed sustainability principles; (v) the NaturALL Bottle Alliance agreement is terminated; (vi) a material adverse change has occurred prior to the first order placed under the agreement; (vii) either party takes steps to enter into liquidation, becomes subject to bankruptcy proceedings or a bankruptcy event occurs with respect to either party, or a third party manufacturer that is critical to our supply chain, and we are unable to retain a substitute; or (viii) an event of default as defined by in Danone’s promissory note occurs.

In November 2016, we received a $5.0 million prepayment from Danone for product from Origin 1 pursuant to the offtake agreement with Danone. The prepayment was to be credited against the purchase of products from Origin 1 over the term of the offtake agreement. The prepayment is evidenced by a secured note. In May 17, 2019, the Danone offtake agreement and secured note were amended to make Danone's prepayment repayable in three fixed cash installments, inclusive of interest. If Danone terminates the offtake agreement, the note becomes due immediately. Our outstanding obligation, together with accrued interest, under Danone’s promissory note totaled an aggregate of $5.7 million as of December 31, 2021. In addition, upon any material breach of the offtake agreement by us, we have a specified amount of time, subject to modification by agreement with Danone, to cure the breach before Danone may terminate the agreement.
Pepsi Offtake Agreement
In August 2018, we entered into an offtake agreement with Pepsi. The agreement has a 5-year term to purchase a specified amount of product per year from the Origin 1 facility, and an additional 5-year term to purchase a specified amount of product per year from Origin 2. Pepsi may terminate the agreement if commercial operation or delivery of product from Origin 1 has not occurred by December 31, 2022. Pepsi also may terminate the agreement if commercial operation of Origin 2 has not occurred by June 30, 2025, or if product from Origin 2 has not been delivered before September 30, 2025.
In addition to the above provisions, Pepsi may terminate the offtake agreement if: (i) we fail to meet agreed upon quality or quantity requirements; (ii) a force majeure event continues for an extended period; or (iii) a bankruptcy event occurs with respect to either party, or a third party manufacturer that is critical to our supply chain, and we are unable to retain a substitute. Also, upon our material breach of the offtake agreement, we have a specified amount of time, subject to modification by agreement with Pepsi, to cure the breach before Pepsi may terminate the agreement.
Packaging Matters Offtake Agreement
In December 2020, we entered into an offtake agreement with Packaging Matters, LLC (formerly known as Packaging Equity Holdings, LLC) (“Packaging Matters”). This agreement has a 10-year term and provides for the purchase of specified volumes of product per year from each of our first four plants, Origin 1 through Origin 4. Packaging Matters may terminate the agreement if we deliver notice to Packaging Matters that we have determined that it is reasonably likely that we will not fulfill certain conditions precedent to start-up of the Origin 1 facility by January 1, 2025.
In addition to the above provisions, either party may terminate the offtake agreement if a force majeure event continues for an extended period or if a bankruptcy event occurs with respect to the other party. Upon our material breach of the offtake agreement, we have a specified amount of time, subject to modification by agreement with Packaging Matters, to cure the breach before Packaging Matters may terminate the agreement.
Research and Development
Our strategy depends upon both continued improvement of our platform technology and development of new chemical pathways, next-generation materials and product applications, and our research and development efforts are focused on supporting these two objectives. We operate an in-house laboratory and pilot-scale manufacturing facilities in
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West Sacramento, California and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada to conduct research and development work. In addition, we conduct joint research and development work with third parties including academic institutions, vendors, and other partners such as members of the NaturALL Bottle Alliance.
Intellectual Property
Our patent portfolio is comprised of 19 patent families focused on the conversion of biomass to CMF and HTC. Origin intends to retain exclusive rights to commercially work its biomass to CMF and HTC pathways.
Patents. Our core technology—biomass to CMF and HTC—is protected with patents, trade secrets, and know-how. We have 25 patents directed to CMF. One U.S. and one Korean composition of matter patent expiring in 2034 are directed to crystalline forms of CMF. Fourteen patents are directed to compositions of and methods for preparing CMF. These include three in the United States, two in Korea, two in Malaysia, and one each in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico, which expire in 2032, as well as two patents in the United States and one in Brazil that expire in 2034. Nine patents are directed to methods and systems for purifying CMF. These include one patent in the United States and one in China, each expiring in 2033, and three patents in the United States and one each in Brazil, China, South Korea, and Europe that expire in 2034. We have seven pending applications directed to compositions and methods for preparing CMF. These include one in the United States that would expire in 2034, two in Malaysia that would expire in 2034, one in Malaysia that would expire in 2032, two in China that would expire in 2034, and one in Europe that would expire in 2034.
We also have eight patents directed to methods for preparing PX and terephthalic acid (PTA when purified). These include two patents in the United States and one each in China and Japan that expire in 2032, as well as three patents in the United States and one in Japan that expire in 2033.
We have five patents directed to dimethylfuran (“DMF”), a derivative of CMF, including three patents in the United States expiring in 2034 directed to methods of producing DMF and two patents in the United States expiring in 2035 directed to compositions of and methods for preparing DMF. We also have two pending patent applications directed to DMF. These include one each in Thailand and Europe that would expire in 2035.
We have two pending patent applications directed to furandicarboxylate-polymer compositions, including PEF, and methods for producing such compositions. These include one pending application in China that would expire 2036 and one pending application in the United States that would expire in 2037.
In addition, we have five patents directed to polyhydroxylalkanoate (“PHA”), a biodegradable plastic. These include one composition of matter patent in the United States and one in Malaysia, each expiring in 2031, that are directed to bacterial strains for producing PHA, two patents in the United States, and one in Malaysia expiring in 2033 directed to compositions and methods for converting PHA into PHA derivatives.
We have three patents directed to other derivatives of CMF. These include two U.S. patents expiring in 2035 and 2036, respectively, directed to methods of preparing chemical derivatives from CMF, and one U.S. patent expiring in 2035 directed to compositions for preparing CMF derivatives.
Finally, we have one pending patent application in the United States that would expire in 2036 and is directed to compositions and resins of activated carbon and methods for producing these.
Trade secrets. We maintain a secure digital vault of our trade secrets with heightened confidentiality protections. Access to this vault is limited to a select group and is granted on a need-to-know basis. Further, the information in the vault is left strategically incomplete and requires corroboration from referenced internal documents to ensure that the entirety of any trade secret is known only by someone who has access to each such document. Our employees are required to participate in invention assignment and non-disclosure protocols to further ensure the protection of our trade secrets.
Know-how. An important aspect of our intellectual property, in addition to our patent portfolio and trade-secrets, is the depth of understanding and proficiency we gained in the behavior of the Origin technology platform's chemical reactions, the handling of feedstocks, and the process-ability of feedstocks given certain conditions. This know-how into our process and materials is carefully captured in many ways, such as by being photographed, videoed, measured, quantified, summarized, compared, and otherwise described. Within this information set, we have identified many key insights without which we believe a would-be competitor could not successfully operate in our industry or replicate our results.
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Regulatory
Regulation by government authorities in the United States, Canada and other countries is a significant factor in the production and sale of our products and our ongoing research and development activities. The chemicals and intermediates that we manufacture and use, including CMF and HTC, require (or as the products are further commercialized are anticipated to require) authorization or exemptions under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the EPA), the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) administered by Health Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada, and the European Union’s regulation entitled the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Our production processes are subject to regulations and permit requirements relating to air emissions, wastewater discharges, waste generation and disposal and other environmental matters. Additionally, some applications will involve food contact and will be regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the FDA).
Chemical control regulations applicable to us, such as TSCA, CEPA or REACH, impose restrictions with respect to the permitted volumes of, or the sites at which, certain chemicals manufactured or used by us may be manufactured, imported, transported and/or released into the environment. For example, in the United States, the manufacture of CMF as a chemical intermediate currently is restricted to a quantity of 15,000 kilograms per year and the volume of a substance that may be used in some subsequent conversions of CMF is subject to import restrictions in Canada. In addition, the import into Canada of a certain polymer associated with the manufacture of CMF and HTC is limited to not more than 1,000 kilograms per year prior to submitting a New Substance Notification. Compliance with these regulations is complex and could require significant capital and/or operating expenses, and failure to comply with any of these regulations can have significant consequences. Our regulatory focus has been on seeking the removal or relaxation of certain restrictions to enable scaled up production. We have filed or will be filing notifications under TSCA and CEPA seeking to remove these restrictions, as necessary, and are working to identify alternatives that are not similarly restricted in the location where they are used.
Employees and Human Capital Resources

Intentional Culture and Leadership. At Origin, our values inform our decision making and how we act. We are deliberate, open, and transparent about our dedication to our core purpose; to enable the world’s transition to sustainable materials as the leading carbon negative materials company. We have assembled an exceptional team of world-class scientists, engineers, and business leaders to develop and execute our strategic plans.

Diversity, Equity & Inclusion. We believe that having a diverse workforce, equitable employment practices, and an inclusive workplace better positions us to respond to the unique needs of all our stakeholders. In 2020, we created the Origin Committee on Diversity and Inclusion. This committee is responsible for ensuring that Origin policies, procedures, and practices are conducive to creating and maintaining a diverse and inclusive environment that is valuable for all stakeholders. In late 2021, we hired a leading DE&I consulting firm, to help us map out our DE&I strategy and operationalize our DE&I goals. Finally, we have recently hired our first-ever VP, Human Resources to further strengthen our DE&I leadership and develop our program into 2023 and beyond.

Human Capital. As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 80 employees located in the United States and 6 employees in Canada, all of whom were full-time employees. None of our employees is subject to a collective bargaining agreement and we believe we have a good relationship with our employees. Our ability to attract, retain and motivate exceptional employees is vital to our long-term competitive advantage. As such, our compensation practices, including long-term equity incentive plans, are designed to drive sustainable performance and align employee incentives with shareholder values.

Supporting Our Employees through COVID-19. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have established and enforced comprehensive policies in the areas of Infectious Disease Control and COVID-19 Vaccinations. Currently, our employees are required to be vaccinated against COVID-19 or receive a vaccination exemption and adhere to strict COVID-19 protocols when on-site at our locations. Our vaccinated employees, when on-site at our locations, are also required to adhere to rigorous guidelines to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These guidelines are designed to meet or exceed those set by local, state, and federal authorities that are applicable to our employees and sites. In addition, we have established and expanded remote working arrangements and tools across our organization in an effort to reduce the threat of a COVID-19 outbreak. Our COVID-19 Task Force, composed of staff and management employees across all departments, meets regularly to evaluate our policies and guidelines.
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Corporate Information
Artius Acquisition Inc. ("Artius") incorporated in the Cayman Islands on January 24, 2020 and formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. On June 25, 2021, Zero Carbon Merger Sub Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Artius merged with and into Micromidas, Inc. a Delaware corporation (now known as Origin Materials Operating, Inc.,“Legacy Origin”), with Legacy Origin surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Artius (the "Business Combination"). In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, Artius changed its name to Origin Materials, Inc. Legacy Origin was incorporated in 2008 as a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 930 Riverside Parkway, Suite 10, West Sacramento, California 95605. Origin has the following wholly-owned Canadian subsidiaries:
Origin Materials Canada Holding Limited;
Origin Materials Canada Pioneer Limited;
Origin Materials Canada Polyesters Limited; and
Origin Materials Canada Research Limited.
We became a large accelerated filer on December 31, 2021 because our aggregate worldwide market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2021, our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was greater than $700 million. Prior to that, we were an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012. As an emerging growth company, we were eligible for exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation. We can no longer avail ourselves of these exemptions.
Additional Information

Origin's annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports are available free of charge on the Company's website at https://investors.originmaterials.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following risk factors apply to our business and operations. These risk factors are not exhaustive, and investors are encouraged to perform their own investigation with respect to our business, financial condition and prospects. We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes to such financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of this Annual Report.
Risks Related to Our Business
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Status as an Early Stage Company
We are an early stage company with a history of losses and our future profitability is uncertain.
We have had a history of net losses due to our primary focus on research and development, plant construction, capital expenditures and early-stage commercial activities. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had net losses of $30.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we had a net income of $42.1 million. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $56.8 million.
We expect that our net losses will continue for the foreseeable future. Based on our estimates and projections, which are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, we do not expect to generate revenue until 2023 and do not expect to reach commercial scale production until 2025. Even if we are able to commercialize our products and generate revenue from product sales, we may not become profitable for many years, if at all.
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Our potential profitability is dependent upon many factors, including our ability to complete construction of current and future plants, maintain an adequate supply chain, anticipate and react to demand for our products, manufacture our products on a commercial scale, secure additional customer commitments, and otherwise execute our growth plan. We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to be significantly higher in future periods as we:
expand our commercial production capabilities and incur construction costs associated with building our plants;
increase our expenditures associated with our supply chain, including sourcing primary feedstock for our products;
increase our spending on research and development for new products;
begin full scale commercial production of our products;
increase our sales and marketing activities and develop our distribution infrastructure; and
increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations and to operate as a public company.
Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before receiving meaningful revenue, our losses in future periods could be significant. We may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently estimates or that these efforts may not result in revenues, which would further increase our losses.
We may not manage growth effectively.
Our failure to manage growth effectively could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We anticipate that a period of significant expansion will be required to address potential growth. This expansion will place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources. To manage the growth of our operations and personnel, we must establish appropriate and scalable operational and financial systems, procedures and controls and establish and maintain a qualified finance, administrative and operations staff. We may be unable to hire, train, retain and manage the necessary personnel or to identify, manage and exploit potential strategic relationships and market opportunities.
Our business plan assumes we can secure substantial additional project financing and government incentives, which may be unavailable on favorable terms, if at all.
We will need substantial additional project financing and government incentives in order to execute our growth strategy and expand our manufacturing capability. We have not yet secured such project financing and government incentives, and they may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In particular, our ability to obtain financing for the construction of future plants may depend in part on our ability to first enter into customer agreements sufficient to demonstrate sufficient demand to justify the construction of such plants. If we are unable to obtain such financing and government incentives, or secure sufficient customer agreements, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, we will not be able to execute our growth strategy.
To the extent that we raise additional capital in through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of those securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making acquisitions or capital expenditures or declaring dividends. Debt financing could also have significant negative consequences for our business, results of operations and financial condition, including, among others, increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing, requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of our cash flow available for other purposes, limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business, and placing us at a possible competitive disadvantage compared to less leveraged competitors or competitors that may have better access to capital resources.
If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or products, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or other arrangements when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our
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commercialization, research and development efforts or grant rights to third parties to market and/or develop products that we would otherwise prefer to market and develop ourselves.
If we seek government grants, incentives or subsidies, their terms may be limiting or restrict certain of our planned operations, thereby requiring us to alter our operating plans and materially impacting our financial projections and projected results of operations. Government grants may also be terminated, modified or recovered under certain conditions without our consent.
We previously identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that we have concluded has been remediated, though we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, which may result in material misstatements of our consolidated financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020, during the course of preparing for the Business Combination, and during the second quarter 2021 and third quarter 2021 interim reviews, we identified a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of its annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Specifically, we did not have in place an effective control environment with formal processes and procedures to allow for a detailed review of accounting transactions that would identify errors in a timely manner. In addition, due to our size, we did not have proper segregation of duties and had insufficient accounting and finance personnel with an appropriate level of technical accounting knowledge in the application of U.S. GAAP commensurate with our complexity and financial accounting and reporting requirements to design, implement and operate precise business processes and internal control activities over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance of preventing or detecting material misstatements. We previously restated our financial statements as of and for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
We have begun implementing and are continuing to implement measures designed to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate this material weakness, including retention of an accounting consultant to assist in areas of complex accounting and financial reporting, converting and upgrading our accounting system and hiring additional IT personnel. We have also hired a staff accountant and a corporate controller and expect to hire additional accounting personnel. These actions, being implemented through the fourth quarter of 2021, related to the design effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting allow us to conclude that the material weakness has been remediated.
If we are unable to successfully remediate any future material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, or if we identify any additional material weaknesses, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable Nasdaq listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting and our stock price may decline as a result. We also could become subject to investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
As a public company, we are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting for future annual reports on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by management in our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will also be required to audit the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in future annual reports on Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC. We will be required to disclose changes made in our internal control over financial reporting on a quarterly basis. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the applicable stock exchange or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. We have begun the process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 in the future, but we may not be able to complete its evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.
Changes in tax laws or tax rulings could materially affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The tax regimes we are subject to or operate under, including income and non-income taxes, are unsettled and may be subject to significant change. Changes in tax laws, regulations, or rulings, or changes in interpretations of existing laws and regulations, could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. For example, the 2017 Tax Cuts and
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Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including changes to U.S. federal tax rates, additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, both positive and negative changes to the utilization of future net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards, allowing for the expensing of certain capital expenditures, and putting into effect the migration from a “worldwide” system of taxation to a more territorial system. Future guidance from the IRS with respect to the Tax Act may affect us, and certain aspects of the Tax Act could be repealed or modified in future legislation. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) has already modified certain provisions of the Tax Act. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act, the CARES Act or any newly enacted federal tax legislation. The issuance of additional regulatory or accounting guidance related to the Tax Act could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate in the period issued. In addition, many countries in Europe and a number of other countries and organizations, have recently proposed or recommended changes to existing tax laws or have enacted new laws that could significantly increase our tax obligations in the countries where we do business or require it to change the manner in which we operate our business.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been working on a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project, and issued a report in 2015, an interim report in 2018, and is expected to continue to issue guidelines and proposals that may change various aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined in many of the countries in which we do business. Similarly, the European Commission and several countries have issued proposals that would change various aspects of the current tax framework under which we are taxed. These proposals include changes to the existing framework to calculate income tax, as well as proposals to change or impose new types of non-income taxes, including taxes based on a percentage of revenue. For example, several countries have proposed or enacted taxes applicable to digital services, which could apply to our business.
As we expand the scale of our international business activities, these types of changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate, increase the amount of taxes imposed on our business, and harm our financial position. Such changes may also apply retroactively to our historical operations and result in taxes greater than the amounts estimated and recorded in our financial statements.
Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to taxation in Canada and other jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could have an adverse impact on our liquidity and results of operations. In addition, the authorities in several jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest and penalties, which could have an impact on us and on our results of operations. We have previously participated in government programs with the Canadian federal government and Canadian provincial governments that provide investment tax credits based upon qualifying research and development expenditures. If Canadian taxation authorities successfully challenge such expenses or the correctness of such income tax credits claimed, our historical operating results could be adversely affected. As a public company, we will no longer be eligible for refundable tax credits under the Canadian federal Scientific Research and Experimental Development Program (“SR&ED”) credits. However, we are still eligible for non-refundable SR&ED credits under this program, which are eligible to reduce future income taxes payable.
Our future effective tax rates in Canada could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors.
Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:
changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances;
tax effects of stock-based compensation;
costs related to intercompany restructurings;
changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations thereof; or
future earnings being lower than anticipated in countries where we have has lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated earnings in countries where we have has higher statutory tax rates.
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We may conduct activities in Canada and other jurisdictions through our subsidiaries pursuant to transfer pricing arrangements and may in the future conduct operations in other jurisdictions pursuant to similar arrangements. If two or more affiliated companies are located in different countries, the tax laws or regulations of each country generally will require that transfer prices be the same as those between unrelated companies dealing at arms’ length. While we intend to operate in compliance with applicable transfer pricing laws, our transfer pricing procedures are not binding on applicable tax authorities. If tax authorities in any of these countries were to successfully challenge our transfer prices as not reflecting arm’s length transactions, they could require us to adjust our transfer prices and thereby reallocate our income to reflect these revised transfer prices, which could result in a higher tax liability to us.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We have has incurred losses during our history. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2021, we had U.S. federal net operating loss ("NOL") carryforwards of approximately $97.8 million.
Under the Tax Act, as modified by the CARES Act, U.S. federal NOL carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act. In addition, our NOL carryforwards are subject to review and possible adjustment by the IRS, and state tax authorities. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, our federal net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may become subject to an annual limitation in the event of certain cumulative changes in the ownership of our stock. An “ownership change” pursuant to Section 382 of the Code generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of a company’s stock increase their ownership (as measured by value) by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Our ability to utilize our NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities may be limited as a result of ownership changes, including potential changes in connection with the Business Combination or other transactions. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. We have not yet determined the amount of the cumulative change in our ownership resulting from the Business Combination or other transactions, or any resulting limitations on our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes. If we earn taxable income, such limitations could result in increased future income tax liability to us and our future cash flows could be adversely affected. We have recorded a valuation allowance related to our NOL carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
Our outstanding secured and unsecured indebtedness, ability to incur additional debt and the provisions in the agreements governing our current debt, and certain other agreements, could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our debt service and similar obligations could have important consequences to us for the foreseeable future, including that our ability to obtain additional financing for capital expenditures, working capital or other general corporate purposes may be impaired and we may be or become substantially more leveraged than some of our competitors, which could place us at a relative competitive disadvantage and make us more vulnerable to changes in market conditions and governmental regulations.
We are required to maintain compliance with certain financial and other covenants under our debt and similar agreements. There are and will be operating and financial restrictions and covenants in certain of our debt and similar agreements, as well as certain other agreements to which we are or may become a party. These limit, among other things, our ability to incur certain additional debt, create certain liens or other encumbrances and sell assets. These covenants could limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our best long-term interests. Our failure to comply with certain covenants in these agreements could result in an event of default under the various debt and similar agreements, allowing lenders to accelerate the maturity for the debt under these agreements and to foreclose upon any collateral securing the debt. Under such circumstances, we might not have sufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all of our obligations.
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Risks Related to Our Operations and Industry
Construction of our plants may not be completed in the expected timeframe or in a cost-effective manner. Any delays in the construction of our plants could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our projected financial performance and results of operations, including our ability to achieve commercial scale production, depend on our ability to construct several commercial scale plants. While we expect the Origin 1 plant to be operational by the end of 2022, we do not expect the Origin 2 plant to be operational until 2025, and our expansion to additional commercial scale plants is not planned to commence until 2027. In particular, except for Origin 2, subject to finalization of economic incentives, we have not selected a site for any of our future planned plants, and may have difficulty finding sites with appropriate infrastructure and access to raw materials. With respect to these future plants, we also do not have agreements with engineering, procurement or construction firms. Consequently, we cannot predict on what terms such firms may agree to design and construct our future plants. If we are unable to construct these plants within the planned timeframes, in a cost-effective manner or at all due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, a failure to acquire or lease land on which to build our plants, a stoppage of construction as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, unexpected construction problems, permitting and other regulatory issues, severe weather, inflationary pressures, labor disputes, and issues with subcontractors or vendors, including payment disputes, which we have previously experienced, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be severely impacted.
The construction and commission of any new project is dependent on a number of contingencies some of which are beyond our control. There is a risk that significant unanticipated costs or delays could arise due to, among other things, errors or omissions, unanticipated or concealed project site conditions, including subsurface conditions and changes to such conditions, unforeseen technical issues or increases in plant and equipment costs, insufficiency of water supply and other utility infrastructure, or inadequate contractual arrangements. Should these or other significant unanticipated costs arise, this could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial performance and operations. No assurance can be given that construction will be completed on time or at all, or as to whether we will have sufficient funds available to complete construction.
We plan to rely on our Origin 1 and Origin 2 plants to meet customer demand until at least 2027.
Our operating plan assumes that we will rely on Origin 1 and Origin 2 to meet customer demand until 2027 and that Origin 2 will supply most of our products from the time Origin 2 is expected to become operational in 2025 until at least 2027. Adverse changes or developments affecting these facilities, and in particular Origin 2, could impair our ability to produce our products. Any shutdown or period of reduced production at these facilities, and in particular Origin 2, which may be caused by regulatory noncompliance or other issues, as well as other factors beyond our control, such as severe weather conditions, natural disaster, fire, power interruption, work stoppage, disease outbreaks or pandemics (such as COVID-19), equipment failure or delay in supply delivery, would, among other things, significantly disrupt our ability to generate revenue, execute our expansion plans, and meet our contractual obligations and customer demands. In addition, our plant equipment may be costly to replace or repair, and our equipment supply chains may be disrupted in connection with pandemics (such as COVID-19), trade wars or other factors. If any material amount of our equipment is damaged, we could be unable to predict when, if at all, we could replace or repair such equipment or find suitable alternative equipment, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Performance guarantees may not be sufficient to cover damages or losses, or the guarantors under such guarantees may not have the ability to pay. Any insurance coverage we have may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
We may be delayed in procuring or unable to procure necessary capital equipment.
While the equipment we use to produce our products is currently widely available, we rely on outside companies to continue to manufacture the equipment necessary to produce our products. If our suppliers of capital equipment are unable or unwilling to provide us with necessary capital equipment to manufacture our products or if we experience significant delays in obtaining the necessary manufacturing equipment, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, the construction of our plants may require a substantial portion of certain materials and supplies relative to the overall global supply of such materials and supplies. If we are unable to secure an adequate supply of such materials and supplies on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, the construction of our plants may be delayed or terminated.
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We have not produced our products in large commercial quantities.
We have no experience in producing large quantities of our products. While we have succeeded in producing small amounts of our products in our pilot plant for customer trials and testing purposes, we have not yet commenced large-scale production. There are significant technological and logistical challenges associated with producing, marketing, selling and distributing products in the specialty chemicals industry, including our products, and we may not be able to resolve all of the difficulties that may arise in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. While we believe that we understand the engineering and process characteristics necessary to successfully build and operate our additional planned facilities and to scale up to larger facilities, we may not be able to cost effectively manage production at a scale or quality consistent with customer demand in a timely or economical manner.
Any decline in the value of carbon credits associated with our products could harm our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
The value of our products may be dependent on the value of carbon credits, programs relating to low-carbon materials and products standards and other similar regulatory regimes or the implicit value of decarbonized materials. The value of these credits fluctuates based on market and regulatory forces outside of our control. There is a risk that the supply of low-carbon alternative materials and products outstrips demand, resulting in the value of carbon credits declining. Any such declines could mean that the economic benefits from our customers’ efforts to decarbonize their operations might not be realized. Any decline in the value of carbon credits associated with our products could harm our results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
We expect to rely on a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our near-term revenue.
We currently have offtake and capacity reservation agreements with a limited number of customers, from which we expect to generate most of our revenues in the near future. The loss of one or more of our significant customers, a substantial reduction in their orders, their failure to exercise customer options, their unwillingness to extend contractual deadlines if we are unable to meet production requirements, their inability to perform under their contracts or a significant deterioration in their financial condition could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. If we fail to perform under the terms of these agreements, the customers could seek to terminate these agreements and/or pursue damages against us, including liquidated damages in certain instances, which could harm our business.
Our offtake agreements with customers include termination, liquidated damages and/or advance repayment provisions that may be triggered if we fail to timely complete plant construction or commence our commercial operations.
Our offtake agreements with our customers allow the customers to terminate the agreements if specified construction and product delivery requirements are not satisfied. For example, under two of these agreements, if Origin 1 had not commenced commercial operation by December 31, 2021 or we had not delivered specified product volume from Origin 1 by September 30, 2022, then, in each case, the customer may terminate the agreement and any outstanding secured promissory notes resulting from advance payments made to us will become due immediately. The outstanding obligations under those promissory notes, together with accrued interest, totaled an aggregate of $10.9 million as of December 31, 2021. These agreements also require us to pay liquidated damages up to an aggregate of $0.9 million if Origin 1 had not commenced commercial operation by December 31, 2020 or we had not delivered specified product volume from Origin 1 by September 30, 2021. In September 2020, the counterparties to these agreements agreed to waive compliance with the milestones and their right to liquidated damages until June 30, 2021, in order to facilitate the negotiation of amendments to the agreements, including the milestone achievement dates. In June 2021, one of the counterparties agreed to further extend this deadline through September 30, 2021. And in November 2021, this counterparty agreed to further extend the deadline to June 30, 2022. In December 2021, the other counterparty agreed to extend the deadline to March 31, 2022.
A third offtake agreement is terminable by the customer if commercial operation or delivery of product from Origin 1 has not occurred by December 31, 2022. Discussions to amend these agreements and extend these milestone dates are ongoing but we cannot guarantee that the discussions will result in any such extension. We do not currently expect Origin 1 to be operational until 2022 or to produce product until 2023. Accordingly, if these milestone dates are not extended, we may be required to pay these liquidated damages and repay the amounts outstanding under the foregoing promissory notes and our offtake agreements may be subject to termination by our customers. If any of our offtake agreements are terminated or we are required to pay liquidated damages or repay advances under our offtake agreements, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be harmed.
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Our products may not achieve market success.
We currently have a small number of binding customer commitments for commercial quantities of our products. Some prospective customers are currently evaluating and testing our products prior to making large-scale purchase decisions. The successful commercialization of our products is dependent on our customers’ ability to commercialize the end-products that utilize our products, which may gain market acceptance slowly, if at all. Furthermore, the technology for our products is new, and the performance and ultimate carbon footprint of these products is uncertain. The market for carbon-negative products is nascent and subject to significant risks and uncertainties.
Market acceptance of our products will depend on numerous factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, among others:
public acceptance of such products;
our ability to produce products of consistent quality that offer functionality comparable or superior to existing or new products;
our ability to produce products fit for their intended purpose;
our ability to produce new products or customizations of existing products to match changes in public demand;
our ability to obtain necessary regulatory approvals for our products;
the speed at which potential customers qualify our products for use in their products;
the pricing of our products compared to competitive and alternative products, including petroleum- based plastics;
the strategic reaction of companies that market competitive products;
our reliance on third parties who support or control distribution channels; and
general market conditions, including fluctuating demand for our products.
Our industry is highly competitive, and we may lose market share to producers of products that can be substituted for our products, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
The specialty chemicals industry is highly competitive, and we face significant competition from both large established producers of fossil-based materials, recycled fossil-based materials and a variety of current and future producers of low-carbon, biodegradable, or renewable resource-based materials. Many of our current competitors have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger customer bases and significantly greater financial, sales and marketing, manufacturing, distribution, technical and other resources than us. Our competitors may be able to adapt more quickly to new or emerging technologies, changes in customer requirements and changes in laws and regulations. In addition, current and potential competitors have established or may establish financial or strategic relationships among themselves or with existing or potential customers or other third parties. Accordingly, new competitors or alliances among competitors could emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share.
Our competitors may also improve their relative competitive position by successfully introducing new products or products that can be substituted for our products, improving their manufacturing processes, or expanding their capacity or manufacturing capabilities. Further, if our competitors are able to compete at advantageous cost positions, this could make it increasingly difficult for us to compete in markets for less-differentiated applications. If we are unable to keep pace with our competitors’ product and manufacturing process innovations or cost position, it could harm our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control.
We are subject to, among other things, the following factors that may negatively affect our operating results:
the announcement or introduction of new products by our competitors;
our ability to upgrade and develop our systems and infrastructure to accommodate growth;
our ability to attract and retain key personnel in a timely and cost-effective manner;
our ability to attract new customer and retain existing customers;
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technical difficulties;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures relating to the expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
our ability to identify and enter into relationships with appropriate and qualified third-party providers of necessary testing and manufacturing services;
regulation by federal, state or local governments; and
general economic conditions, as well as economic conditions specific to the plastics and fuels industries, and other industries related to compostable or biodegradable substitutes for
non-biodegradable plastics, as well as changes to commodity prices to which prices in some of our contracts are indexed.
As a result of our limited operating history and the nature of the markets in which we compete, it is difficult for us to forecast our revenues or earnings accurately. We have based our anticipated future expense levels largely on our investment plans and estimates of future events, although certain of our expense levels will, to a large extent, become fixed. As a strategic response to changes in the competitive environment, we may from time to time make certain decisions concerning expenditures, pricing, service or marketing that could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Due to the foregoing factors, our revenues and operating results are difficult to forecast.
Our commercial success may be influenced by the price of petroleum relative to the price of non-fossil feedstocks.
Our commercial success may be influenced by the cost of our products relative to petroleum-based products. The cost of petroleum-based products is in part based on the price of petroleum, which is subject to historically fluctuating prices. Our production plans assume the use of timber and forest residues as feedstock, which historically have experienced low volatility. If the price of bio-based feedstocks increases and/or the price of petroleum decreases, our products may be less competitive relative to petroleum-based products. A material decrease in the cost of conventional petroleum-based products may require a reduction in the prices of our products for them to remain attractive in the marketplace and may negatively impact our revenues.
Increases or fluctuations in the costs of our raw materials may affect our cost structure.
The price of raw materials may be impacted by external factors, including uncertainties associated with war, terrorist attacks, weather and natural disasters, health epidemics or pandemics (such as COVID-19), civil unrest, the effects of climate change or political instability, plant or production disruptions, strikes or other labor unrest, inflationary pressures, breakdown or degradation of transportation infrastructure used in the delivery of raw materials or changes in laws or regulations in any of the countries in which we have has significant suppliers.
We currently use and plan to use local timber and forest residues as our primary raw materials. The cost of these raw materials is generally influenced by supply and demand factors, and our operating plans include assumptions that the timber and forest residues we intend to use as feedstock will be available at prices similar to historic levels with low volatility. As we continue to expand our production, we will increase our demand for timber and forest residues which may alter the anticipated stability in the costs of our raw materials and potentially drive an increase in the cost of such raw materials.
Our results of operations will be directly affected by the cost of raw materials. The cost of raw materials comprises a significant amount of our total cost of goods sold and, as a result, movements in the cost of raw materials, and in the cost of other inputs, will impact our profitability. Because a significant portion of our cost of goods sold is represented by these raw materials, our gross profit margins could be adversely affected by changes in the cost of these raw materials if we are unable to pass the increases on to our customers.
If our raw material prices experience volatility, there can be no assurance that we can continue to recover raw material costs or retain customers in the future. As a result of our pricing actions, customers may become more likely to consider competitors’ products, some of which may be available at a lower cost. Significant loss of customers could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
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The failure of our raw material suppliers to perform their obligations under supply agreements, or our inability to replace or renew these agreements when they expire, could increase our cost for these materials, interrupt production or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.
Our manufacturing processes use local timber and forest residues as our primary raw materials. However, we may be unable to secure agreements with local suppliers for the necessary amount of raw materials in certain circumstances. If we are required to obtain alternate sources for raw materials because a supplier is unwilling or unable to execute or perform under raw material supply agreements, if a supplier terminates its agreements with us, if a supplier is unable to meet increased demand as our commercial scale production expands, if we are unable to renew its contracts or if we are unable to obtain new long-term supply agreements to meet changing demand, we may not be able to obtain these raw materials in sufficient quantities, on economic terms, or in a timely manner, and we may not be able to enter into long-term supply agreements on terms as favorable to us, if at all. A lack of availability of raw materials could limit our production capabilities and prevent us from fulfilling customer orders, and therefore harm our results of operations and financial condition.
Maintenance, expansion and refurbishment of our facilities, the construction of new facilities and the development and implementation of new manufacturing processes involve significant risks.
Our facilities may require regular or periodic maintenance, upgrading, expansion, refurbishment or improvement. Any unexpected operational or mechanical failure, including failure associated with breakdowns and forced outages, could reduce our facilities’ production capacity below expected levels, which would reduce our production capabilities and ultimately our revenues. Unanticipated capital expenditures associated with maintaining, upgrading, expanding, repairing, refurbishing, or improving our facilities may also reduce our profitability. Our facilities may also be subject to unanticipated damage as a result of natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other events.
If we make any major modifications to our facilities, such modifications likely would result in substantial additional capital expenditures and could prolong the time necessary to bring the facility online. We may also choose to refurbish or upgrade our facilities based on our assessment that such activity will provide adequate financial returns. However, such activities require time for development and capital expenditures before commencement of commercial operations, and key assumptions underpinning a decision to make such an investment may prove incorrect, including assumptions regarding construction costs and timing, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The construction of new manufacturing facilities entails a number of risks and assumptions, including the ability to begin production within the cost and timeframe estimated and to attract a sufficient number of skilled workers to meet the needs of the new facility. Additionally, our assessment of the projected benefits associated with the construction of new manufacturing facilities is subject to a number of estimates and assumptions, which in turn are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties that are beyond our control. If we experience delays or increased costs, our estimates and assumptions are incorrect, or other unforeseen events occur, our business, ability to supply customers, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.
Finally, we may not be successful or efficient in developing or implementing new production processes. Innovation in production processes involves significant expense and carries inherent risks, including difficulties in designing and developing new process technologies, development and production timing delays, lower than anticipated manufacturing yields, and product defects. Disruptions in the production process can also result from errors, defects in materials, delays in obtaining or revising operating permits and licenses, returns of product from customers, interruption in our supply of materials or resources, and disruptions at our facilities due to accidents, maintenance issues, or unsafe working conditions, all of which could affect the timing of production ramps and yields. Production issues can lead to increased costs and may affect our ability to meet product demand, which could adversely impact our business and results from operations.
We may not be successful in finding future strategic partners for continuing development of additional offtake and feedstock opportunities or tolling and downstream conversion of our products.
We may seek to develop additional strategic partnerships to increase feedstock supply and offtake amounts due to manufacturing constraints or capital costs required to develop our products. We may not be successful in our efforts to establish such strategic partnerships or other alternative arrangements for our products or technology because our research and development pipeline may be insufficient, our products may be deemed to be at too early of a stage of development for collaborative effort or third parties may not view our products as having the requisite potential to demonstrate commercial success.
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If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of our products, delay commercialization, reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities or increase expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to enter into collaborations and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to develop additional products and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We may rely heavily on future collaborative and supply chain partners.
We have has entered into, and may enter into, strategic partnerships to develop and commercialize our current and future research and development programs with other companies to accomplish one or more of the following:
obtain capital, equipment and facilities;
obtain funding for research and development programs, product development programs and commercialization activities;
obtain expertise in relevant markets;
obtain access to raw materials;
obtain sales and marketing services or support;
obtain conversion services and other supply chain support; and/or
obtain access to intellectual property and ensure freedom to operate.
We may not be successful in establishing or maintaining suitable partnerships, and we may not be able to negotiate collaboration agreements having terms satisfactory to us, or at all. Failure to make or maintain these arrangements or a delay or failure in a collaborative partner’s performance under any such arrangements could harm our business and financial condition.
We may become subject to product liability claims that may not be covered by insurance and could require us to pay substantial sums.
We are subject to an inherent risk of, and adverse publicity associated with, product liability and other liability claims, whether or not such claims are valid. In addition, our customers are subject to product liability claims, and could seek contribution from us. A successful product liability claim or series of claims against us could adversely impact the specialty chemicals industry, our reputation or our financial condition or results of operations. Product liability insurance may not be available to us on commercially acceptable terms, or at all. Even if such insurance is available, product liability or other claims may exceed our insurance coverage limits. A successful product liability claim that exceeds our insurance coverage limits, for which we are not otherwise indemnified, could require us to pay substantial sums and could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Climate change may impact the availability of our facilities and, in addition, we may incur substantial costs to comply with climate change legislation and related regulatory initiatives.
Changing weather patterns and the increase in frequency of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes could cause disruptions or the complete loss of our facilities or delay the construction of future facilities. In addition, climate change concerns, and changes in the regulation of such concerns, including greenhouse gas emissions, could also subject us to additional costs and restrictions, including increased energy and raw materials costs which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations. Climate change may also negatively impact the availability of our feedstock. The effects of climate change can not only adversely impact our operations, but also that of its suppliers and customers, and can lead to increased regulations and changes in consumer preferences, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Risks Related to Government Regulation
Compliance with extensive environmental, health and safety laws could require material expenditures, changes in our operations or site remediation.
We use hazardous materials in our production process, and our operations also produce hazardous waste. The manufacture, transportation and sale of our products can present potentially significant health and safety concerns and are also under increased public and governmental scrutiny. Our products are also used in a variety of applications that have specific regulatory requirements such as those relating to products that have contact with food or are used for medical applications.
Accordingly, our operations are subject to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations at the international, national, state and local level in multiple jurisdictions. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, solid and hazardous waste management and disposal, occupational health and safety, including dust and noise control, site remediation programs and chemical use and management. Many of these laws and regulations have become more stringent over time and the costs of compliance with these requirements may increase, including costs associated with any necessary capital investments. In addition, our plants will require operating permits that are subject to renewal and, in some circumstances, revocation. The necessary permits may not be issued or continue in effect, and renewals of any issued permits may contain significant new requirements or restrictions. The nature of the specialty chemicals industry exposes us to risks of liability due to the use, production, management, storage, transportation and sale of materials that are heavily regulated or hazardous and can cause contamination or personal injury or damage if released into the environment.
Compliance with environmental laws and regulations generally increases the costs of transportation and storage of raw materials and finished products, as well as the costs of storage and disposal of wastes. We may incur substantial costs, including fines, damages, criminal or civil sanctions and remediation costs, or experience interruptions in our operations for violations arising under environmental laws, regulations or permit requirements. In addition, the market for bioplastics is heavily influenced by applicable federal, state and local government laws, regulations and policies as well as public perception. Changes in these laws, regulations and policies or how these laws, regulations and policies are implemented and enforced could cause the demand for bioplastics to decline and deter investment in the research and development of bioplastics. Concerns associated with bioplastics, including land usage, national security interests, deforestation, food crop usage and other environmental concerns, continue to receive legislative, industry and public attention. This attention could result in future legislation, regulation and/or administrative action that could adversely affect our business.
Furthermore, various petrochemical products, including plastics, have faced increased public scrutiny due to negative coverage of plastic waste in the environment, which has resulted in local, state, federal and foreign governments proposing and in some cases approving, restrictions or bans on the manufacture, consumption and disposal of certain petrochemical products. Although our products are intended to replace petrochemical products, increased regulation on the use of such products or other products in the specialty chemicals industry, whatever their scope or form, could increase our costs of production, impact overall consumption of our products or result in misdirected negative publicity. Any inability to address these requirements and any regulatory or policy changes could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. We could face criminal liability and other serious consequences for violations, which would harm our business.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act and possibly other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators from authorizing, promising, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or anything else of value to recipients in the public or private sector. We can also be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, agents, contractors and other collaborators, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. Any violations of the laws and regulations described above may result in substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, imprisonment, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm and other consequences.
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Our operating plan may require us to source feedstock and supplies internationally, and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and changes to international trade agreements, tariffs, import and excise duties, taxes or other governmental rules and regulations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our expansion model is global and we will need to source feedstock and supplies from suppliers around the world. In particular, our manufacturing process uses local timber and forest residues as our primary raw materials, which must be sourced locally. For the Origin 1 plant, this means we will need to source feedstock, as well as other supplies, from Canadian suppliers or arrange for transport of such feedstock and supplies into Canada. The U.S. federal government or other governmental bodies may propose changes to international trade agreements, tariffs, taxes and other government rules and regulations. If foreign currency exchange rates fluctuate or any restrictions or significant increases in costs or tariffs are imposed related to feedstock and supplies sourced to our plants as a result of amendments to existing trade agreements or otherwise, this may increase our supply and shipping costs, resulting in potential decreased margins. We may expand our operations to countries with unstable governments that are subject to instability, corruption, changes in rules and regulations and other potential uncertainties that could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The extent to which our margins could decrease in response to any future tariffs is uncertain. We continue to evaluate the impact of trade agreements, as well as foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and other recent changes in foreign trade policy on our supply chain, costs, sales and profitability. In addition, COVID-19 has resulted in increased travel restrictions and the extended shutdown of certain businesses throughout the world. The impact of COVID-19 on our business is uncertain at this time and will depend on future developments; however, prolonged closures in Canada, Europe, Asia and elsewhere may disrupt the operations of certain suppliers of feedstock and other supplies, which could, in turn, negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Our business relies on proprietary information and other intellectual property, and our failure to protect our intellectual property rights could harm our competitive advantages with respect to the use, manufacturing, sale or other commercialization of our processes, technologies and products, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We intend to make significant capital investments into the research and development of proprietary information and other intellectual property as we develop, improve and scale our processes, technologies and products, and failure to fund and make these investments, or underperformance of the technology funded by these investments, could severely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we fail to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, such failure could result in the reduction or loss of our competitive advantage. We may be unable to prevent third parties from using our proprietary information and other intellectual property without our authorization or from independently developing proprietary information and other intellectual property that is similar to ours, particularly in those countries where the laws do not protect our proprietary rights to the same degree as in the U.S or those countries where we do not have intellectual property rights protection. The use of our proprietary information and other intellectual property by others could reduce or eliminate competitive advantages that we have developed, potentially causing us to lose sales or actual or potential customers, or otherwise harm our business. If it becomes necessary for us to litigate to protect these rights, any proceedings could be burdensome and costly, could result in counterclaims challenging our intellectual property (including validity or enforceability) or accusing us of infringement, and we may not prevail.
Our patent applications and issued patents may be practiced by third parties without our knowledge. Our competitors may also attempt to design around our patents or copy or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary information and other intellectual property. Moreover, our competitors may already hold or have applied for patents in the U.S. or abroad that, if enforced, could possibly prevail over our patent rights or otherwise limit our ability to manufacture, sell or otherwise commercialize one or more of our products in the U.S. or abroad. With respect to our pending patent applications, we may not be successful in securing issued patents, or the claims of such patents may be narrowed, any of which may limit our ability to protect inventions that these applications were intended to cover, which could harm our ability to prevent others from exploiting our technologies and commercializing products similar to our products. In addition, the expiration of a patent can result in increased competition with consequent erosion of profit margins.
The applicable governmental authorities may not approve our pending service mark and trademark applications. A failure to obtain trademark registrations in the U.S. and in other countries could limit our ability to obtain and retain our trademarks in those jurisdictions. Moreover, third parties may seek to oppose our applications or otherwise challenge the
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resulting registrations. In the event that our trademarks are not approved or are successfully challenged by third parties, we could be forced to rebrand our products, which could result in loss of brand recognition and could require us to devote significant resources to rebranding and advertising and marketing new brands. The failure of our patents, trademarks, trade secrets, or confidentiality agreements to protect our proprietary information and other intellectual property, including our processes, apparatuses, technology, trade secrets, trade names and proprietary manufacturing expertise, methods and compounds, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Some of our intellectual property has been or will be discovered, conceived or developed through research funded by the Canadian government and thus may be subject to federal regulations providing for certain rights for the Canadian government or imposing certain obligations on us, such as limitations on exploiting such intellectual property outside of Canada. Compliance with such regulations may limit our exclusive rights and ability to commercialize our products and technology outside of Canada.
We may face patent infringement and other intellectual property claims that could be costly to defend, result in injunctions and significant damage awards or other costs (including indemnification of third parties or costly licensing arrangements, if licenses are available at all) and limit our ability to use certain key technologies in the future or require development of non-infringing products or technologies, which may cause us to incur significant unexpected costs, prevent us from commercializing our products and otherwise harm our business.
The various bioindustrial markets in which we plan to operate are subject to frequent and extensive litigation regarding patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights. Many of our competitors have a substantial amount of intellectual property. We cannot guarantee that our processes and products do not and will not infringe issued patents (whether present or future) or other intellectual property rights belonging to others.
From time to time, we oppose third-party patents that we consider overbroad or otherwise invalid in order to maintain the necessary freedom to operate fully in our various business lines without the risk of being sued for patent infringement. If, however, the oppositions are unsuccessful, we could be liable for infringement or have to take other remedial or curative actions to continue our manufacturing and sales activities with respect to one or more products.
We may also be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of our business, including claims of alleged infringement or misappropriation of the patents, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property rights of third parties by us or our licensees in connection with their use of our products. Intellectual property litigation is expensive and time-consuming, regardless of the merits of any claim, and could divert our management’s attention from operating our business.
If we were to discover that our processes, technologies or products infringe or misappropriate the valid intellectual property rights of others, we might need to obtain licenses from these parties or substantially re-engineer our processes, technologies or products in order to avoid infringement. We may not be able to obtain the necessary licenses on acceptable terms, or at all, or be able to re-engineer our processes, technologies or products successfully. Moreover, if we or our licensees are sued for infringement or misappropriation and lose, we could be required to pay substantial damages, indemnify our licensees and/or be enjoined from using or selling the infringing processes, technologies or products. If we incur significant costs to litigate infringement or misappropriation claims or to obtain licenses, or if our inability to obtain required licenses prevents us from using or selling our processes, technologies or products, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We rely on trade secrets to protect our technology, and our failure to maintain trade secret protection could limit our ability to compete.
We rely on trade secrets to protect some of our technology and proprietary information, especially where we believe patent protection is not appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. The misappropriation or other compromise of our trade secrets may lead to a reduction or loss of our competitive advantages resulting from such trade secrets. Further, litigating a claim that a third party had misappropriated our trade secrets would be expensive and time consuming, and the outcome would be unpredictable. Moreover, if our competitors independently develop similar knowledge, methods and know-how, it will be difficult for us to enforce our rights and our business could be harmed.
Our confidentiality agreements could be breached or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or proprietary manufacturing expertise. Adequate remedies may not be available in the event of an unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and manufacturing expertise. Violations by others of our confidentiality agreements and the loss of employees who have specialized knowledge and expertise could harm our competitive position resulting from the
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exclusive nature of such knowledge and expertise and cause our sales and operating results to decline as a result of increased competition. In addition, others may obtain knowledge of our trade secrets through independent development or other access by legal means.
Other Risks Related to Our Business
Our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Our executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage our transition to a public company following the Business Combination. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to our management and growth. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. It is possible that will be required to expand its employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase its operating costs in future periods.
We are dependent on management and key personnel, and our business would suffer if we fail to retain our key personnel and attract additional highly skilled employees.
Our success depends on the specialized skills of our management team and key operating personnel. This may present particular challenges as we operate in a highly specialized industry sector, which may make replacement of our management team and key operating personnel difficult. A loss of our managers or key employees, or their failure to satisfactorily perform their responsibilities, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our future success will depend on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified personnel for all areas of our organization, particularly research and development, recycling technology, operations and sales. Trained and experienced personnel are in high demand and may be in short supply. Many of the companies that we compete with for experienced employees have greater resources than us and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training employees, which increases their value to competitors that may seek to recruit them. We may not be able to attract, develop and maintain the skilled workforce necessary to operate our business, and labor expenses may increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of qualified personnel, which will negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to stringent and changing obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse business consequences.

In the ordinary course of business, we collect, receive, store, process, generate, use, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit, and share (commonly known as processing) personal data and other sensitive information, including proprietary and confidential business data, trade secrets, and intellectual property. Our data processing activities subject us to various data privacy and security obligations, which can include laws, regulations, guidance, industry standards, external and internal privacy and security policies, contracts, and other obligations that govern the processing of personal data by us and on our behalf.

In the United States, federal, state, and local governments have enacted numerous data privacy and security laws, including data breach notification laws, personal data privacy laws, and consumer protection laws. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) imposes obligations on businesses to which it applies, such as providing specific disclosures in privacy notices and affording California residents certain rights related to their personal data. In addition, it is anticipated that the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), effective January 1, 2023, will expand the CCPA, including by establishing a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the CPRA. Other states have also enacted data privacy laws, including Virginia and Colorado. In addition, data privacy and security laws have been proposed at the federal, state, and local levels in recent years, which could further complicate compliance efforts.

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Outside the United States, an increasing number of laws, regulations, and industry standards apply to data privacy and security. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“EU GDPR”) and the United Kingdom’s GDPR (“UK GDPR”) impose strict requirements for processing the personal data of individuals located in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) and the UK, respectively. For example, under the EU GDPR, government regulators may impose temporary or definitive bans on data processing, as well as fines of up to 20 million euros or 4% of annual global revenue, whichever is greater. Additionally, in Canada, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (“PIPEDA”) and various related provincial laws, as well as Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (“CASL”), may apply to our operations. We also target customers in Asia, and may be subject to new and emerging data privacy regimes in Asia, such as China’s Personal Information Protection Law, Japan’s Act on the Protection of Personal Information, and Singapore’s Personal Data Protection Act.

In addition, certain jurisdictions have enacted data localization laws and cross-border personal data transfer laws, which could make it more difficult to transfer information across jurisdictions (such as transferring or receiving personal data that originates in Europe or other jurisdictions). Existing mechanisms that may facilitate cross-border personal data transfers may change or be invalidated.

Obligations related to data privacy and security are quickly changing in an increasingly stringent fashion, creating some uncertainty as to the effective future legal framework. Additionally, these obligations may be subject to differing applications and interpretations, which may be inconsistent or in conflict among jurisdictions. Preparing for and complying with these obligations may require us to devote significant resources (including, without limitation, financial and time-related resources). These obligations may necessitate changes to our information technologies, systems, and practices and to those of any third parties that process personal data on our behalf.

Although we endeavor to comply with all applicable data privacy and security obligations, we may at times fail (or be perceived to have failed) to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, our personnel or third parties upon whom we rely may fail to comply with such obligations, which could negatively impact our business operations and compliance posture. For example, any failure by a third-party processor to comply with applicable law, regulations, or contractual obligations could result in adverse effects, including inability to or interruptions in our ability to operate our business and proceedings against us by governmental entities or others.

If we fail, or are perceived to have failed, to address or comply with data privacy and security obligations, we could face significant consequences. These consequences may include, but are not limited to, government enforcement actions (e.g., investigations, fines, penalties, audits, inspections, and similar); litigation (including class-related claims); additional reporting requirements and/or oversight; bans on processing personal data; and orders to destroy or not use personal data.

Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, or financial condition, including but not limited to: loss of customers; interruptions or stoppages in our business operations; inability to process personal data or to operate in certain jurisdictions; limited ability to develop or commercialize our products; expenditure of time and resources to defend any claim or inquiry; adverse publicity; or revision or restructuring of our operations.

If our information technology systems or data, or those of third parties upon which we rely, are or were compromised, we could experience adverse consequences resulting from such compromise, including but not limited to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers; and other adverse consequences.

In the ordinary course of our business, we may process proprietary, confidential, and sensitive data, including personal data, intellectual property, and trade secrets (collectively, sensitive information). We may rely upon third-party service providers and technologies to operate critical business systems to process sensitive information in a variety of contexts, including, without limitation, third-party providers of cloud-based infrastructure, encryption and authentication technology, employee email, content delivery to customers, manufacturing processing, orders and invoices, payments, customer and supplier communications, inventory management and other functions. We also depend on these systems to respond to customer inquiries, support our overall internal control process, maintain property, plant and equipment records, and pay amounts due to vendors and other creditors. Our ability to monitor these third parties’ information security practices is limited, and these third parties may not have adequate information security measures in place. We may share or receive sensitive information with or from third parties.
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Cyberattacks, malicious internet-based activity, and online and offline fraud are prevalent and continue to increase. These threats are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. These threats come from a variety of sources, including traditional computer “hackers,” threat actors, personnel (such as through theft or misuse), sophisticated nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors.

We and the third parties upon which we rely may be subject to a variety of evolving threats, including but not limited to social-engineering attacks (including through phishing attacks), malicious code (such as viruses and worms), malware (including as a result of advanced persistent threat intrusions), denial-of-service attacks (such as credential stuffing), personnel misconduct or error, ransomware attacks, supply-chain attacks, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other information technology assets, adware, telecommunications failures, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other similar threats.

Ransomware attacks, including those perpetrated by organized criminal threat actors, nation-states, and nation-state-supported actors, are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe – particularly for companies like ours that are engaged in manufacturing – and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational harm, and diversion of funds. Extortion payments may alleviate the negative impact of a ransomware attack, but we may be unwilling or unable to make such payments due to, for example, applicable laws or regulations prohibiting such payments. The COVID-19 pandemic and our remote workforce poses increased risks to our information technology systems and sensitive information, as more of our employees work from home, utilizing network connections outside our premises. Any of the previously identified or similar threats could cause a security incident or other interruption. A security incident or other interruption could result in unauthorized, unlawful, or accidental acquisition, modification, destruction, loss, alteration, encryption, disclosure of, or access to our sensitive information. A security incident or other interruption could disrupt our ability (and that of third parties upon whom we rely) to provide our products.

We may expend significant resources or modify our business activities in an effort to protect against security incidents. Certain data privacy and security obligations may require us to implement and maintain specific security measures, industry-standard or reasonable security measures to protect our information technology systems and sensitive information.

While we have implemented security measures designed to protect against security incidents, there can be no assurance that these measures will be effective. We may be unable in the future to detect vulnerabilities in our information technology systems because such threats and techniques change frequently, are often sophisticated in nature, and may not be detected until after a security incident has occurred.

Despite our efforts to identify and remediate vulnerabilities, if any, in our information technology systems, our efforts may not be successful. Further, we may experience delays in developing and deploying remedial measures designed to address any such identified vulnerabilities. Applicable data privacy and security obligations may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of security incidents. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosures or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to adverse consequences.

If we (or a third party upon whom we rely) experience a security incident or are perceived to have experienced a security incident, we may experience adverse consequences. These consequences may include: government enforcement actions (for example, investigations, fines, penalties, audits, and inspections); additional reporting requirements and/or oversight; restrictions on processing data (including personal data); litigation (including class claims); indemnification obligations; negative publicity; reputational harm; monetary fund diversions; interruptions in our operations (including availability of data); financial loss; and other similar harms. Security incidents and attendant consequences may deter negatively impact our ability to grow and operate our business. Our contracts may not contain limitations of liability, and even where they do, there can be no assurance that limitations of liability in our contracts are sufficient to protect us from liabilities, damages, or claims related to our data privacy and security obligations. We cannot be sure that our insurance coverage will be adequate or sufficient to protect us from or to mitigate liabilities arising out of our data privacy and security practices, that such coverage will continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that such coverage will pay future claims.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Shares
Our Certificate of Incorporation provides, subject to limited exceptions, that the Delaware Court of Chancery is the sole and exclusive forum for certain stockholder litigation matters, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a chosen judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or stockholders.
Our Certificate of Incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and employees for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought in the Delaware Court of Chancery or, if that court lacks subject matter jurisdiction, another federal or state court situated in the State of Delaware. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation. In addition, our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action under the Securities Act.
This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our Certificate of Incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of us. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:
initially providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;
authorizing our board of directors to issue Preferred Stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could discourage a takeover attempt or delay changes in control;
prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;
providing that vacancies on our board of directors may generally be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
prohibiting the adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws or the repeal of the provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation regarding the election and removal of directors without the required approval of at least two-thirds of the shares entitled to vote at an election of directors;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;
limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders; and
requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals.
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our Board, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware ("DGCL") will govern us. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time without the consent of our Board. These and other provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Common Stock and result in the market price of our Common Stock being lower than it would be without these provisions.
Claims for indemnification by our directors and officers may reduce our available funds to satisfy successful third-party claims against us and may reduce the amount of money available to us.
Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.
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In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, the Bylaws and its indemnification agreements that we entered into with our directors and officers provide that:
we will indemnify our directors and officers for serving us in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at our request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify such person if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful;
we may, in our discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is permitted by applicable law;
we will be required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that such directors or officers shall undertake to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification;
we will not be obligated pursuant to our Bylaws to indemnify a person with respect to proceedings initiated by that person against us or our other indemnities, except with respect to proceedings authorized by our Board or brought to enforce a right to indemnification;
the rights conferred in the Bylaws are not exclusive, and we are authorized to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons; and
we may not retroactively amend our Bylaw provisions to reduce our indemnification obligations to directors, officers, employees and agents.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We have has never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock and do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our Board. In addition, our loan agreements contain restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.
The market price and trading volume of our Common Stock may be volatile and could decline significantly.
The stock markets, including Nasdaq on which we have listed the shares of our Common Stock under the symbol “ORGN,” have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Even if an active, liquid and orderly trading market is sustained for our Common Stock, the market price of our Common Stock may be volatile and could decline significantly. In addition, the trading volume in our Common Stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our Common Stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at or above the market price of our Common Stock at which your purchased our Common Stock. We cannot assure you that the market price of Common Stock will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including, among others, the following:
the realization of any of the risk factors presented in this Annual Report;
actual or anticipated differences in our estimates, or in the estimates of analysts, for our revenues, results of operations, level of indebtedness, liquidity or financial condition;
additions and departures of key personnel;
failure to comply with the requirements of Nasdaq;
failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or other laws or regulations;
future issuances, sales, resales or repurchases or anticipated issuances, sales, resales or repurchases, of our securities;
publication of research reports about us;
the performance and market valuations of other similar companies;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
broad disruptions in the financial markets, including sudden disruptions in the credit markets;
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speculation in the press or investment community;
actual, potential or perceived control, accounting or reporting problems;
changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from infectious diseases, health epidemics and pandemics (including the ongoing COVID-19 public health emergency), natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.
In the past, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their shares. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly and could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors due to seasonality and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, resulting in a decline in our stock price.
Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly because of several factors, including:
labor availability and costs for hourly and management personnel;
profitability of our products;
changes in interest rates;
impairment of long-lived assets;
macroeconomic conditions, both nationally and locally;
negative publicity relating to products we serve;
changes in consumer preferences and competitive conditions;
expansion to new markets; and
fluctuations in commodity prices.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our Common Stock adversely, then the price and trading volume of our Common Stock could decline.
The trading market for our Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. Securities and industry analysts do not currently, and may never, publish research on us. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, our stock price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts who may cover us change their recommendation regarding our Common Stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Common Stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of the us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect us, including the market price of the our Common Stock and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
In the future, we may incur debt or issue equity-ranking senior to our Common Stock. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting its operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our Common Stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of our Common Stock and be dilutive to existing stockholders.
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There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
Our Common Stock and the public warrants that were issued in connection with Artius’ initial public offering (the “Public Warrants”) are currently listed on Nasdaq. If Nasdaq delists our securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:
a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
a determination that our Common Stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in our Common Stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities; or
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum share price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum share price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” Because Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on Nasdaq, they are covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. While we are not aware of a state, other than the State of Idaho, having used these powers to prohibit or restrict the sale of securities issued by blank check companies, certain state securities regulators view blank check companies unfavorably and might use these powers, or threaten to use these powers, to hinder the sale of securities of blank check companies in their states. Further, if we were no longer listed on Nasdaq, our securities would not be covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities.
We no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company” and will be required to comply with certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and can no longer take advantage of reduced disclosure requirements.
Based on the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2021, we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, as of the year following December 31, 2021. As a result, we may incur additional and increasing costs to comply with our reporting and other obligations that we had not historically incurred due to our status as an emerging growth company or as a smaller reporting company. These additional obligations will require us to dedicate internal resources, engage outside consultants, and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal controls over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes, as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented, and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal controls over financial reporting.
A significant portion of our total outstanding shares of Common Stock are restricted from immediate resale but may be sold into the market in the near future. This could cause the market price of Common Stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Shares of our Common Stock that are currently restricted from immediate resale may be sold into the market in the near future. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of Common Stock. We are unable to predict the effect that sales may have on the prevailing market price of Common Stock and Public Warrants.
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To the extent our Warrants are exercised, additional shares of Common Stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of Common Stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales, or the potential sales, of substantial numbers of shares in the public market by the selling securityholders, subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods, could increase the volatility of the market price of Common Stock or adversely affect the market price of Common Stock.
There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.
The exercise price for our Warrants is $11.50 per share of Common Stock. There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless. Our Warrants become exercisable on July 25, 2021.
We may amend the terms of the Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of your Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of shares of our Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant could be decreased, all without your approval.
Our Warrants are issued in registered form under the Warrant Agreement between the warrant agent and us. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of Public Warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then- outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Warrants, convert the Warrants into cash or stock (at a ratio different than initially provided), shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of our Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant.
We may redeem unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrantholders, thereby making such Warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of such redemption and provided certain other conditions are met. If and when the Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Warrants could force you (a) to exercise your Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (b) to sell your Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Warrants or (c) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Warrants.
In addition, we may redeem your Warrants after they become exercisable for a number of shares of Common Stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Common Stock. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above. In addition, such redemption may occur at a time when the Warrants are “out-of-the-money,” in which case, you would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of our Common Stock had your Warrants remained outstanding.
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We may issue additional shares of Common Stock or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of the Common Stock.
As of December 31, 2021 we have Warrants outstanding to purchase an aggregate of 35,476,667 shares of Common Stock. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, we may issue up to 25,000,000 shares of our Common Stock as Earnout Shares. In addition, pursuant to the 2021 Plan and the Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), we may issue an aggregate of up to 20,313,819 shares of Common Stock, which amount may be subject to increase from time to time. We may also issue additional shares of Common Stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future in connection with, among other things, future acquisitions or repayment of outstanding indebtedness, without stockholder approval, in a number of circumstances. The issuance of additional shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank would have the following effects:
existing stockholders’ proportionate ownership interest in us will decrease;
the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease;
the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding Common Stock may be diminished; and
the market price of the Common Stock may decline.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters, pilot-scale plant and research and development laboratories are located in West Sacramento, California, where we occupy approximately 38,011 square feet of office, plant and laboratory space. Our lease for this facility expires in October 31, 2028. We believe that the facility that it currently leases is adequate for its needs for the immediate future and that, should it be necessary, we can lease additional space to accommodate any future growth.
We also own a production facility in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, Origin 1, that is currently under construction. This production facility is on approximately two acres of land and contains a construction trailer complete with approximately 1,440 square feet of office space. The land is owned and the offices are leased by our wholly owned subsidiary, Origin Materials Canada Pioneer Limited.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The information set forth under "Contingencies" in Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II Item 8 of this Annual Report is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our Common Stock and Public Warrants are listed on NASDAQ under symbols “ORGN” and “ORGNW”, respectively.
Holders
As of close of business on February 25, 2022, there were 97 holders of record of our Common Stock and 2 holders of record of our Public Warrants. The actual number of holders of our Common Stock and Public Warrants is greater than the number of record holders, and includes holders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares or warrants are held in street name by brokers or other nominees.
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Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends and do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
Information about our equity compensation plans in Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Not applicable.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
On June 25, 2021, Artius Acquisition, Inc. consummated the Business Combination with Legacy Origin pursuant to the Merger Agreement. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, Artius changed its name to Origin Materials, Inc. Legacy Origin was deemed to be the accounting acquirer in the Merger. While Artius was the legal acquirer in the Merger, because Legacy Origin was deemed the accounting acquirer, the historical consolidated financial statements of Legacy Origin became the historical consolidated financial statements of the combined company, upon the consummation of the Merger.
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in the sections titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” as set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report. Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this section to “Legacy Origin”, “the Company”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to the business and operations of Legacy Origin and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and to Origin Materials, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, following the Closing.
Overview
Origin is a carbon negative materials company with a mission to enable the world’s transition to sustainable materials by replacing petroleum-based materials with decarbonized materials in a wide range of end products, such as food and beverage packaging, clothing, textiles, plastics, car parts, carpeting, tires, adhesives, soil amendments and more. We believe that our platform technology can help make the world’s transition to “net zero” possible and support the fulfillment of greenhouse gas reduction pledges made by countries as part of the United Nations Paris Agreement as well as corporations that are committed to reducing emissions in their supply chains. Our technology can convert sustainable feedstocks such as sustainably harvested wood residues, agricultural waste, wood waste and even corrugated cardboard into materials and products that are currently made from fossil feedstocks such as petroleum and natural gas. These sustainable feedstocks are not used in food production, which differentiates our technology from other sustainable materials companies that use feedstocks such as vegetable oils or high fructose corn syrup and other sugars. While we have has succeeded in producing small amounts of our products in the pilot plant for customer trials and testing purposes, we have has not yet commenced large-scale production.
We believe that products made using Origin's platform technology can compete directly with petroleum-derived products on both performance and price. Due to abundant and renewable wood supplies that have historically stable pricing, our cost of production is expected to be more stable than potential competing platforms that use other types of feedstocks. We believe that end products made using our platform technology will have a significant unit cost advantage over products made from other low carbon feedstocks.
We have developed a proprietary platform technology to convert biomass, or plant-based carbon, into the versatile “building block” chemicals CMF and HTC, as well as other product intermediates. At a commercial scale, Origin's platform technology is expected to produce CMF and HTC with a negative carbon footprint. Origin believes these chemicals can replace petroleum-based counterparts, lowering the carbon footprint of a wide range of materials without sacrificing performance or cost.
We are currently developing and constructing our first manufacturing plant in Ontario, Canada (Origin 1), which is expected to become operational by the end of 2022. We are also currently in the planning phase for the construction of a significantly larger manufacturing plant (Origin 2), which is expected to become operational in 2025.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
In March 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The pandemic has resulted in governments around the world implementing increasingly stringent measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments, school closures and other measures. In addition, governments and central banks in several parts of the world have enacted fiscal and monetary stimulus measures to counteract the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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We continue to monitor the rapidly evolving conditions and circumstances, as well as guidance from international and domestic authorities, including public health authorities, and we may need to take additional actions based on their recommendations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the impact on our business stemming from current measures and potential future measures that could restrict access to our facilities, limit manufacturing and support operations and place restrictions on our workforce and suppliers. The measures implemented by various authorities related to the COVID-19 outbreak have caused us to change our business practices including those related to where employees work, the distance between employees in our facilities, limitations on in-person meetings between employees and with customers, suppliers, service providers and stakeholders, as well as restrictions on business travel to domestic and international locations or to attend trade shows, investor conferences and other events.
The full extent to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our financial performance will depend on future developments, many of which are outside of our control, that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the pandemic, its severity, the effectiveness of actions to contain the virus (including the availability and effectiveness of vaccines) or treat its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. The COVID-19 pandemic could also result in additional governmental restrictions and regulations, which could harm Origin’s business and financial results. In addition, a recession, depression or other sustained adverse market impact resulting from COVID-19 could harm our business and its access to needed capital and liquidity. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, Origin may continue to experience adverse impacts on its business and financial performance as a result of the global economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
To the extent that the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity, it may also heighten other risks, such as the risk that, if the business impacts of COVID-19 carry on for an extended period, we may be required to recognize impairments for certain long-lived assets including amortizable intangible assets.
Key Factors and Trends Affecting Origin’s Operating Results
We are a pre-revenue company. We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and under “Risk Factors appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Basis of Presentation
We currently conduct our business through one operating segment. As a pre-revenue company with no commercial operations, our activities to date have been limited, and our historical results are reported under U.S. GAAP and in U.S. Dollars. Upon commencement of commercial operations, we expect to expand our operations substantially, including in the United States and Canada, and as a result, we expect Origin's future results to be sensitive to foreign currency transaction and translation risks and other financial risks that are not reflected in Origin's historical financial statements. As a result, we expect that the financial results we report for periods after we begin commercial operations will not be comparable to the financial results included in this Annual Report.
Components of Results of Operations
We are a pre-revenue company and our historical results may not be indicative of our future results for reasons that may be difficult to anticipate. Accordingly, the drivers of our future financial results, as well as the components of such results, may not be comparable to our historical or projected results of operations.
Research and Development Expenses
To date, our research and development expenses have consisted primarily of development of our four key product intermediates CMF, HTC, levulinic acid and furfural, and the conversion of those intermediates into products familiar to and desired by our customers, such as PX and PET. Our research and development expenses also include investments associated with the expansion of the Origin 1 plant and planning and construction of the Origin 2 plant, including the material and supplies to support product development and process engineering efforts.
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General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including stock-based compensation, professional fees, including, the costs of accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax compliance.
Additionally, costs related to advertising, trade shows, corporate marketing, as well as an allocated portion of our occupancy costs also comprise general and administrative expenses.
Change in Fair Value of Assumed Common Stock Warrants Liability
The change in fair value of assumed common stock warrants liability consists of the change in fair value of the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants assumed in connection with the Business Combination. We expect to incur an incremental income (expense) for the fair value adjustments for the outstanding assumed common stock warrants liability at the end of each reporting period or through the exercise of the warrants.
Other Income (Expense)
Our other income (expense) consists of income from governmental grant programs, interest expense for stockholder convertible notes payable, interest income on marketable securities and income or expenses related to changes in the fair value of assumed common stock warrants liability, earnout liability, and derivative assets and liabilities. We expect to incur an incremental income (expense) for the fair value adjustments of these assets and liabilities at the end of each reporting period.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
Our income tax provision consists of an estimate for U.S. federal and state income taxes based on enacted rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in the tax law. We maintain a valuation allowance against the full value of our U.S. and state net deferred tax assets because we believe the recoverability of the tax assets is not more likely than not.
Non-GAAP Measures
To provide investors with additional information in connection with our results as determined in accordance with GAAP, we disclose Adjusted Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (Adjusted EBITDA) as a non-GAAP measure. This measure is not a financial measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, and it should not be considered as a substitute for net income, operating income, or any other measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
Adjusted EBITDA
We believe that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA is appropriate to provide additional information to investors about our operating profitability adjusted for certain non-cash items, non-routine items that we do not expect to continue at the same level in the future, as well as other items that are not core to our operations. Further, we believe Adjusted EBITDA provides a meaningful measure of operating profitability because we use it for evaluating our business performance, making budgeting decisions, and comparing our performance against that of other peer companies using similar measures.
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We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income or loss adjusted for certain non-cash and non-recurring items, including (i) stock-based compensation expense, (ii) depreciation and amortization, (iii) interest income, (iv) interest expense, net of capitalized interest, (v) change in fair value of derivative liabilities, (vi) change in fair value of warrants liability, (vii) change in fair value of earnout liability, (viii) professional fees related to completed mergers, and (ix) other income, net.
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)20212020
Net income (loss)$42,090 $(30,302)
Stock based compensation5,767 1,630 
Depreciation and amortization544 479 
Interest income(1,413)— 
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest2,838 341 
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities1,326 1,088 
Change in fair value of warrants liability4,525 18,498 
Change in fair value of earnout liability(75,488)— 
Professional fees related to completed mergers640 — 
Other income, net(811)(805)
Adjusted EBITDA$(19,982)$(9,071)
Results of Operations
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
The following table summarizes the Company’s results of operations with respect to the items set forth in such table for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 together with the change in such items in dollars and as a percentage.
Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)20212020VarianceVariance %
Operating expenses:
Research and development$9,124 $4,138 $4,986 120 %
General and administrative expenses17,265 6,563 10,702 163 %
Depreciation and amortization544 479 65 14 %
Total operating expenses and loss from operations26,933 11,180 15,753 141 %
Other expenses (income):
Interest income(1,413)— (1,413)100 %
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest2,838 341 2,497 732 %
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities1,326 1,088 238 22 %
Change in fair value of warrant liability4,525 18,498 (13,973)76 %
Change in fair value of earnout liability(75,488)— (75,488)100 %
Other income, net(811)(805)(6)%
Total other expense (income), net(69,023)19,122 (88,145)(461)%
Net income (loss)$(42,090)$30,302 $(72,392)(239)%
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses increased $5.0 million, or 120%, from 2020 compared to 2021. This increase was primarily due to increases of $1.1 million in stock compensation related to additional stock grants, $0.6 million in fees paid to third-party consultants, $1.8 million related to incremental research and development staffing, $0.3 million in additional research and development supplies, $0.3 million in additional service costs, $0.2 million in additional software and information technology costs, and $0.7 million in other additional expenses.
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General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased $10.7 million, or 163%, from 2020 compared to 2021. This increase was primarily related to increases of $3.0 million in stock compensation expenditures, $0.8 million for incremental increases in staffing supporting construction of Origin 1, including additional expense for personnel within executive, accounting, procurement, sales, and supply-chain development, as well as services in support of the Merger, $0.4 million in legal and professional fees related to regulatory compliance costs, $0.6 million in professional fees related to completed mergers, $2.1 million in additional directors and officers insurance policies, $0.6 million in additional software and information technology costs, $2.8 million in financing costs, and $0.4 million in marketing costs.
Interest income
Interest income increased $1.4 million from 2020 compared to 2021. This increase was related to $1.4 million in interest income from investments in marketable securities.
Interest expense. net of capitalized interest
Interest expense increased $2.5 million from 2020 compared to 2021. This increase is due to the issuance of stockholder convertible notes in November 2019 resulting in an increase to interest expense of $0.4 million and $2.2 million related to the increase in accretion expense for debt issuance costs.
Change in fair value of derivative liabilities, warrant liability, and earnout liability
The Company recognized a gain on the change in the fair values of the derivative liabilities, the warrant liability, and the earnout liability in the amount of $89.2 million from 2020 to 2021. The earnout liability and a portion of the change in the warrant liability are from newly created liabilities reclassified from equity as a result of the Business Combination, with a combined decrease in fair value of $89.4 million resulting from the change in fair value of these instruments over the period from the closing of the merger to December 31, 2021. The decrease in fair value was offset by a $0.3 million increase in the fair value of derivative liability and $0.1 million unrealized gain in the fair value of the foreign currency forward contract derivatives. The movement in these instruments' fair values are driven by the value of the Company's stock price.
Other Income, net
Other income increased a total of $0.0 million from 2020 compared to 2021. This increase was primarily related to $0.2 million in realized gain on sold marketable securities offset by a decrease of $0.2 million in grant income.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
Since inception, we have financed our operations principally from the sales and issuances of redeemable preferred stock, common stock, and convertible notes, and governmental grant programs. Origin had $444.6 million and $1.9 million in cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and marketable securities as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Our cash equivalents are invested primarily in U.S. Treasury money market funds and our marketable securities are primarily U.S. Treasury notes and bonds, corporate bonds, asset-back securities, foreign government and agency securities, and municipal bonds.
We are yet to generate any revenue from our business operations. Our ability to successfully develop the products, commence commercial operations and expand the business will depend on many factors, including our ability to meet the working capital needs, the availability of equity or debt financing and, over time, our ability to generate cash flows from operations.
We will require a significant amount of cash for capital expenditures as we invest in the construction of Origin 1 and Origin 2 plants, and additional research and development. In addition to our cash on hand following the Business Combination, we anticipate that we will need substantial additional project financing and government incentives to meet our financial projections, execute our growth strategy and expand our manufacturing capability, including to finance the construction of the Origin 1 and Origin 2 plants. Our ability to obtain financing for the construction of future plants may depend in part on our ability to first enter into customer agreements sufficient to demonstrate sufficient demand to justify
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the construction of such plants. We may also raise additional capital through equity offerings or debt financings, as well as through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including actual construction costs of the Origin 1 and Origin 2 plants, changes in the costs in our supply chain, expanded operating activities and our ability to secure customers. If our financial projections are inaccurate, we may need to seek additional equity or debt financing from outside sources, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when required, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
We expect to continue to incur operating losses in the near term as our operating and capital expenses will increase to support the growth of the business. We expect that our general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses will continue to increase as we increase our sales and marketing activities, develop our distribution infrastructure, support our growing operations and operate as a public company.
Indebtedness
In November 2019, Legacy Origin entered into secured convertible note agreements (the “2019 Notes”) with certain Legacy Origin preferred stockholders, whereby Legacy Origin could borrow up to $6.0 million in aggregate from the noteholders. The 2019 Notes bear an annual interest rate of 10% and an original maturity date of September 30, 2021. All principal and accrued interest under the 2019 Notes were converted into shares of Legacy Origin Common Stock immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination.
In April 2020, Legacy Origin received an unsecured loan in the amount of $905,838 under the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP Loan”). The Paycheck Protection Program was established under the CARES Act and is administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration. The PPP Loan had a two-year term and bears interest at a rate of 1.00% per annum. This loan was repaid on June 24, 2021.
As of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we have $6.8 million and $6.2 million of indebtedness under a Canadian government program, respectively, of which $0.5 million and $2.6 million was received during the year ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively. Additionally, as of December 31, 2021, we had liability balances consisting of a $5.1 million legacy related party customer prepayment, $5.7 million legacy related party liabilities, and $2.5 million in customer prepayments. As of December 31, 2020, we had liability balances consisting of a $2.5 million customer prepayment, a $5.5 million legacy stockholder note, and a $5.1 million legacy related party customer prepayment.
During 2020, we received $550,000 for the admission of an additional member to a consortium agreement with two legacy Series B preferred stock investors and a legacy Series C investor to collaborate on development of a process to commercialize bio-based, decarbonizing materials for application on an industrial scale at a competitive price. These funds were recorded as other income, net, in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
In February 2021, Legacy Origin issued and sold convertible promissory notes with an aggregate principal amount of $10.0 million and an interest rate of 8.0% per annum (the “2021 Notes”). The 2021 Notes had an original maturity date on September 30, 2021. All principal and accrued interest on the 2021 Notes were converted into shares of Legacy Origin Common Stock immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination.
In November 2016, Legacy Origin received a $5.0 million prepayment from a stockholder for product from Origin 1 pursuant to an Offtake Agreement. The prepayment was to be credited against the purchase of products over the term of the agreement. The prepayment was secured by a promissory note to be repaid in cash in the event that the prepayment could not be credited against the purchase of product, for example, if Origin 1 is never constructed. The promissory note was collateralized substantially by Origin 1 and other assets of Origin Material Canada Pioneer Limited. In May 2019, Legacy Origin and the legacy stockholder amended the offtake agreement and promissory note. The amendment added accrued interest of $0.2 million to the principal balance of the prepayment and provided for the prepayment amount to be repaid in three annual installments rather than being applied against the purchase of product from Origin 1. The promissory note would bear interest at 3.5% per annum and be repaid in three installments of $2.2 million, $2.1 million, and $2.1 million (inclusive of accrued but unpaid interest) on December 20, 2024, December 19, 2025, and December 18, 2026, respectively. At December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the total aggregate principal amount of debt outstanding was $5.2 million and accrued interest totaled $0.5 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
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Prepayments
In November 2016, Legacy Origin received a $5.0 million prepayment from a legacy stockholder for product from Origin 1 pursuant to an Offtake Agreement. The prepayment is to be credited against the purchase of products from Origin 1 over the term of the Offtake Agreement. Specifically, repayment is effected by applying a credit to product purchases each month over the first five years of operation of Origin 1 up to $7.5 million, which is equal to 150% of the prepayment amount. If product purchases are not sufficient to recover the advances, the application of the credit to purchases as payment of the advances will continue until fully repaid. The prepayment is secured by a note to be repaid in cash in the event the prepayment cannot be credited against the purchase of product, for example, if Origin 1 is never constructed. The note is collateralized substantially by Origin 1 and other assets of Origin Material Canada Pioneer Limited. If repaid in cash, the note bears an annual interest rate of the three-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) plus 0.25% (0.38% at December 31, 2021) and matures five years from the commercial operation date of Origin 1. At December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 the total note principal outstanding was $5.1 million plus accrued interest of $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
In September 2019, Legacy Origin entered into a $5.0 million prepayment agreement with a counterparty for the purchase of products from Origin 2. The prepayment is to be made in two equal installments: the first $2.5 million was in October 2019 and the remaining $2.5 million is due within 30 days of the customer confirming that a sample from Origin 1 meets the customer’s specifications. Origin and the customer agreed to work in good faith to execute an Offtake Agreement, the agreed terms of which are set forth in the prepayment agreement, whereby 100% of the prepayment will be applied against future purchases. The prepayment agreement provides the customer a capacity reservation of up to a specified annual volume of product from Origin 1 for a term of ten years, pursuant to the terms of an Offtake Agreement. At December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the total amount outstanding on this agreement was $2.5 million.
Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2020
The following table shows a summary of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Year Ended December 31,
20212020
Total cash used in operating activities$(22,043)$(5,461)
Total cash used in investing activities(411,638)(2,054)
Total cash provided by financing activities478,948 5,829 
Effects of foreign exchange rate changes on the balance of cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash held in foreign currencies(14)(52)
Net increase (decrease) in cash$45,253 $(1,738)
Cash Used in Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $22.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net cash used in operating activities of $5.5 million over the same period in 2020. The increase in cash used in operating activities was primarily attributable to an increase in net loss (after adjusting for non-cash items) attributed to incremental increases in staffing supporting construction of Origin 1, including additional expense within executive, accounting, procurement, sales, and supply-chain development, increase in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and offset by decreases in accrued expenses.
Cash Used in Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $411.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net cash used in investing activities of $2.1 million over the same period in 2020. Our cash flows from investing activities, to date, have been comprised of purchases of property and equipment and purchases and maturities of our marketable securities. We expect the costs to acquire property, plant and equipment to increase substantially in the near future as we fully build out Origin 1 as well as acquire the property, plant and equipment for Origin 2. The change was primarily related to net purchases of marketable securities of $424.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $0.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. and cash used for property, plant and equipment purchases in the year ended December 31, 2021 of $12.3 million, an increase over the $1.8 million of cash used for property, plant and equipment purchases in the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company continues to increase activity related to the construction of Origin 1, which is the main driver of the variation in cash used in investing activities between the two periods.
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Cash Provided by Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $478.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $5.8 million over the same period in 2020. The Company completed a business combination during the year ended December 31, 2021, netting cash proceeds of $467.5 million. Cash of $11.7 million was provided by proceeds from notes payable, payments of $0.9 million were made on short term debt, and $0.5 million provided by proceeds from Canadian Government Research and Development during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to cash of $3.2 million provided by proceeds from notes payable, payments of $0.0 million were made on short-term debt, and $2.7 million provided by proceeds from Canadian Government Research and Development over the same period in 2020.

Material Cash Requirements from Known Contractual Obligations
Our material cash requirements from known contractual obligations as of December 31, 2021, consisted of:
The total cost of Origin 1, our initial plant, under construction in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada and Origin 2 is projected to cost over $1.1 billion, including amounts spent in 2021. These costs, plus the ongoing operating loss of the Company is expected to be funded through a combination of Company cash and marketable securities in addition to substantial project financing and government incentives. We also expect to secure funding for plant construction under potential collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements which have not yet been secured, until such time as Origin 2 is operational.
Operating lease liabilities that are included in our consolidated balance sheets consists of future non-cancelable minimum rental payments under operating leases for our office space, research and development space, and leases of various office equipment, warehouse space, and temporary fencing. For additional information regarding our lease liabilities, see Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In the preparation of these consolidated financial statements, we are required to use judgment in making estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported expenses incurred during the reporting periods.
We consider an accounting judgment, estimate or assumption to be critical when (1) the estimate or assumption is complex in nature or requires a high degree of judgment and (2) the use of different judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. We have the critical accounting policies and estimates which are described below.
Stock-Based Compensation
Origin may grant a wide variety of equity securities under various stock incentive plans, including incentive stock options, nonstatutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, RSU awards, performance stock awards, and other awards. At December 31, 2021, the Company has granted incentive stock options, RSU awards, and performance awards. Origin measures stock options and other stock-based awards granted to employees, directors and other service providers based on their fair value on the date of grant and recognizes compensation expenses of those awards over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. For awards with performance conditions, compensation is recorded once there is sufficient objective evidence the performance conditions are considered probable of being met. The estimated number of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgement, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, such amounts will be recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised. Origin applies the straight-line method of expense recognition to all awards with only service-based vesting conditions. Origin estimates the fair value of each stock option
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grant on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and the grant date closing stock price for restricted stock awards. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the use of highly subjective assumptions including:
Expected Term—Origin have opted to use the “simplified method” for estimating the expected term of plain-vanilla options, whereby the expected term equals the arithmetic average of the vesting term and the original contractual term of the option (generally 10 years).
Risk-Free Interest Rate—The risk-free rate assumption is based on the U.S. Treasury zero-coupon instruments with maturities similar to the expected term of Origin’s stock options.
Expected Dividend—Origin has not issued any dividends and does not anticipate issuing dividends on Origin’s common stock. As a result, Origin has estimated the dividend yield to be zero.
Forfeiture— The Company estimates forfeitures based on historical activity and considers voluntary and involuntary termination behavior as well as analysis of actual historical option forfeitures, netting the estimated expense by the derived forfeiture rate.
Expected Volatility—Due to Origin’s limited operating history and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, Origin has based its estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of similar companies that are publicly traded. The historical volatility data was computed using the daily closing prices for the various companies’ shares during the equivalent period of the calculated expected term of the stock-based awards.
Warrant Liability
We account for the Warrants in accordance with the guidance contained in ASC 815-40-15-7D and 7F under which the Warrants do not meet the criteria for equity treatment and must be recorded as liabilities. Accordingly, we classify the Warrants as liabilities at their fair value and adjust the Warrants to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date until exercised, and any change in fair value is recognized in our statement of operations. The Private Warrants and the Public Warrants for periods where no observable traded price was available are valued using a Monte Carlo simulation. For periods subsequent to the detachment of the Public Warrants from the Units, the Public Warrant quoted market price was used as the fair value as of each relevant date.
Earnout Liability
The Company has recorded an earnout liability related to future contingent equity shares related to the Business Combination (Note 13). The Company recorded these instruments as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value, with subsequent changes in their respective fair values recognized in earnings at each reporting date. The determination of the fair value involves certain judgments and estimates. These judgments include, but are not limited to, the probability of achievement of the market conditions, expected volatility of the Company's common stock, and the appropriate discount rate.
Investments in Marketable Debt Securities, Available-for-Sale
We maintain a portfolio of investments in a variety of fixed and variable rate debt securities, including U.S. treasuries, U.S. government sponsored entities, corporate debt, asset-backed securities and other. We consider our investments in marketable debt securities to be available-for-sale, and accordingly, are recorded at their fair values. We determine the appropriate classification of investments in marketable debt securities at the time of purchase. Interest along with amortization of purchase premiums and accretion of discounts from the purchase date through the estimated maturity date, including consideration of variable maturities and contractual call provisions, are included in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2021 the fair value of marketable securities was estimated to be $397.5 million. See Note 6 - “Fair Value Measurements” of our Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. We typically invest in highly-rated debt securities, and our investment policy generally limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The policy requires substantially all investments to be investment grade, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss.
We regularly review our available-for-sale marketable securities in an unrealized loss position and evaluate the current expected credit loss by considering factors such as historical experience, market data, issuer-specific factors, and current economic conditions. As of December 31, 2021 none of the marketable securities in an unrealized loss position have been in the continuous unrealized loss for more than twelve months. The unrealized losses were attributable to changes in
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interest rates that impacted the value of the investments, and not increased credit risk. Accordingly, we have not recorded an allowance for credit losses associated with these investments. Declines in the fair value of our investments judged to be other than temporary could adversely affect our future operating results.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report for more information about recent accounting pronouncements, the timing of their adoption, and our, to the extent it has made one, of their potential impact on our financial condition and its results of operations and cash flows.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates, inflation and foreign currency translation and transaction risks, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources, hazard events and specific asset risks.
Interest Rate Risk
The market interest risk in our financial instruments and financial positions represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities of $444.6 million, consisting of interest-bearing money market accounts and marketable securities for which the fair market value would be affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. However, due to the short-term maturities and the low-risk profile of our investments, an immediate 10% change in the interest rate would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities.
Foreign Currency Risk
Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar, while our subsidiaries’ functional currency is the Canadian dollar. This can expose us to both currency transaction and translation risk. To date, we have not had material exposure to foreign currency fluctuations and have not hedged such exposure, although we may do so in the future.
Certain marketable debt securities may be denominated in foreign currencies. At December 31, 2021, we had marketable debt securities denominated in U.S. dollar, Australian dollar, and British pound sterling. We pursue our objective of limiting foreign currency exposure by utilizing foreign currency forward contracts to offset foreign exchange risk. Our foreign currency forward contracts are generally short-term in duration. We neither use these foreign currency forward contracts for trading purposes nor do we currently designate these forward contracts as hedging instruments pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Accordingly, we record the fair values of these contracts as of the end of our reporting period to our consolidated balance sheets with changes in fair values recorded to our consolidated statements of operations. Given the short duration of the forward contracts, the amount recorded is not significant. Our ultimate realized gain or loss with respect to foreign currency exposures will generally depend on the size and type of cross-currency transactions that we enter into, the currency exchange rates associated with these exposures and changes in those rates, the net realized gain or loss on our foreign currency forward contracts and other factors.
Item 8. Financial Statements
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Pages
46


47


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Stockholders
Origin Materials, Inc.
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Origin Materials, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matters
Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgements. We determined that there are no critical audit matters.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.
San Jose, California
March 1, 2022
48


ORIGIN MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
December 31, 2021
December 31,
2020
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$46,637 $1,309 
Restricted cash490 565 
Marketable securities397,458  
Other receivables2,612 48 
Derivative asset202  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets3,774 83 
Total current assets451,173 2,005 
Property, plant, and equipment, net57,185 45,104 
Operating lease right-of-use asset1,782  
Intangible assets, net215 258 
Other long-term assets62 62 
Total assets$510,417 $47,429 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$2,451 $2,700 
Accrued expenses973 593 
Operating lease liability, current280  
Other liabilities, current380  
Derivative liability103 1,239 
Stockholder convertible notes payable 3,232 
Total current liabilities4,187 7,764 
PPP Loan 906 
Earnout liability127,757  
Canadian Government Research and Development Program Liability6,762 6,197 
Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrants 19,233 
Assumed common stock warrants liability52,860  
Stockholder note5,189 5,189 
Related party other liabilities, long-term5,720 5,517 
Operating lease liability1,486  
Other liabilities, long-term2,946 2,500 
Total liabilities$206,907 $47,306 
Commitments and contingencies (See Note 19)
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 141,301,569 and 70,266,925, issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively (including 4,500,000 Sponsor Vesting Shares)
16 6 
Additional paid-in capital361,542 98,620 
Accumulated deficit(56,797)(98,887)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(1,251)384 
Total stockholders’ equity303,510 123 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $510,417 $47,429 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
49


ORIGIN MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

Year Ended
December 31,
(In thousands, except share and per share data)20212020
Operating Expenses
Research and development$9,124 $4,138 
General and administrative17,265 6,563 
Depreciation and amortization544 479 
Total operating expenses and loss from operations26,933 11,180 
Other (income) expenses
Interest income(1,413) 
Interest expense, net of capitalized interest2,838 341 
Change in fair value of derivatives1,326 1,088 
Change in fair value of warrants liability4,525 18,498 
Change in fair value of earnout liability(75,488) 
Other income, net(811)(805)
Total other (income) expenses, net(69,023)19,122 
Net income (loss)$42,090 $(30,302)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Unrealized (loss) on marketable securities(1,712) 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax77 794 
Total comprehensive income (loss)$40,455 $(29,508)
Net income (loss) per share, basic$0.42 $(0.48)
Net income (loss) per share, diluted$0.40 $(0.48)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic101,221,781 62,544,933 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, diluted106,237,754 62,544,933 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
50


ORIGIN MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF REDEEMABLE
CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In Thousands, Except Share Amounts)
Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Series A Series B Series C Common StockCommon Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares AmountSharesAmount
BALANCE, December 31, 2019 (as previously reported)
13,204,284 $31,478 6,275,704 $41,125 1,590,675 $23,380 1,283,788 $  $ $1,011 $(68,585)$(410)$(67,984)
Retrospective application of the recapitalization due to the Business Combination (Note 4)(13,204,284)(31,478)(6,275,704)(41,125)(1,590,675)(23,380)(1,283,788)— 62,542,363 6 95,977 — — 95,983 
Balance at December 31, 2019, effect of Business Combination (Note 4)
        62,542,363 6 96,988 (68,585)(410)27,999 
Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options— — — — — — — — 2,912 — 2 — — 2 
Stock-based compensation— — — — — — — — — — 1,630 — — 1,630 
Net loss— — — — — — — — — — — (30,302)— (30,302)
Other comprehensive income— — — — — — — — — — — — 794 794 
BALANCE, December 31, 2020
— — — — — — — — 62,545,275 6 98,620 (98,887)384 123 
Reclassification of stockholders’ convertible notes payable— — — — — — — — 2,049,191 — 20,491 — — 20,491 
Reclassification of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability— — — — — — — — 5,554,440 7 54,267 — — 54,274 
Business Combination, net of
redemptions and equity
issuance costs of $37 million
— — — — — — — — 70,981,545 — 385,405 — — 385,405 
Reclassification of equity to liability related to earn out provisions of Business Combination (see note 13)— — — — — — — — — — (203,082)— — (203,082)
Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options— — — — — — — — 171,118 3 74 — — 77 
Stock-based compensation— — — — — — — — — — 5,767 — — 5,767 
Net income— — — — — — — — — — — 42,090 — 42,090 
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — — — — — — — (1,635)(1,635)
BALANCE, December 31, 2021
— — — — — — — — 141,301,569 $16 $361,542 $(56,797)$(1,251)$303,510 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
51


ORIGIN MATERIALS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Year Ended
December 31,
(in thousands)20212020
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income (loss)$42,090 $(30,302)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash from operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization544 479 
Amortization on right-of-use asset280  
Stock-based compensation5,767 1,630 
Amortization of debt issuance costs14 90 
Accretion of debt discount2,211 101 
Change in fair value of derivative liability1,326 1,088 
Change in fair value of warrants liability4,525 18,498 
Change in fair value of earnout liability(75,488) 
Payments on operating lease liabilities(295) 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Other receivables(2,563)1,007 
Grants receivable 87 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(3,652)53 
Increase in other liabilities, current380  
Accounts payable(395)1,203 
Accrued expenses3,010 349 
Related party payable203 256 
Net cash used in operating activities(22,043)(5,461)
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchases of property, plant, and equipment, net of grants(12,268)(1,786)
Purchases of marketable securities(2,448,316) 
Sales of marketable securities2,024,089  
Maturities of marketable securities25,058  
Capitalized interest on plant construction(201)(268)
Net cash used in investing activities(411,638)(2,054)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from stockholders' notes payable, net of debt issuance costs11,707 3,166 
Payment of short-term debt(906) 
Proceeds from Canadian Government Research and Development Program543 2,662 
Issuance of common stock74 1 
Business combination, net of issuance costs paid467,530  
Net cash provided by financing activities478,948 5,829 
Effects of foreign exchange rate changes on the balance of cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash held in foreign currencies(14)(52)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash45,253 (1,738)
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, beginning of the period1,874 3,612 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of the period$47,127 $